Wednesday, July 31, 2019

John Dewey

Introduced his theories and concepts on how people think. He identified a number of different modes of thought including reflection. He saw reflection as an aspect of thought, a rational and purposeful act that is more then mere thinking. Dewey contrasted routine action with reflective action, laying the roots of reflective practice in teaching (Kodiak-Myers, 2012, p. 5). In his notion of reflective action he described a willingness to engage in self-assessment, which squired flexibility, analysis and social awareness (Pollard, 2005, p. 3). His reflection described a willingness to consider different possibilities and the ability and desire to recognize various opinions (Skateboarders, 2012, p. 5). Reflection, as a familiar activity, is often misunderstood, overlooked in the formal process of teaching and equated with similar activities such as thinking about the day, making sense of experiences we had or discussing resent occurred events and issues. In these daily activities teacher s assume that learning occurs (Bout, Gogh, & Walker, 1 985, p. 8).Employing a reflective teaching approach, a teacher will be In control of the teaching process and Its outcome, giving the teacher the ability to research on the effectiveness of his teaching enabling him to asses if learning indeed occurs (Killeen, 1989, p. 52). In this assignment I will first, explain reflection. In this explanation I will consider the different classification, categories and some characteristics of reflection. Next I will argue that reflection within the learning process is important for the teacher.I will thereafter critically discuss some of the advantages and limitations of along feedback from students In the reflective practice and wall conclude that the advantages outweigh the Limitations of galling feedback. For a teacher to employ a reflective practice he or she needs to firstly understand the meaning of reflection. Rodgers (2002) is of the opinion that, after almost a century of considering reflection there is no clear understanding in our academic literature of what exactly reflection is. She reconsiders Dew's concept of reflection and formulated four criteria that she felt characterized his concept of reflection.She speaks of reflection as a meaning making process that moves a learner from one experience Into the next†, as a â€Å"systematic, rigorous, deadlines way of thinking† that â€Å"needs to happen in community, in interaction with others† and it requires â€Å"attitude that value the personal and intellectual growth of oneself and of others† (Rodgers, 2002, p. 845). Reflection starts when a person inquires into his or her experiences and knowledge relevant to the experience, enabling him or her to ascribe meaning to his or her beliefs (Collier, 1999, p. 73). Learning Is affected through a process of thinking and fleeting on new experiences In relation to an excellent knowledge base and own understanding. Collier (1999) refers to Ki tcheners research that suggests a continuation of the reflection process, where knowledge is first viewed as certain and absolute, learned from authorities and direct observations. This absolute acceptance of knowledge develops, as the individual's own experiences and knowledge develops to â€Å"uncertain, relative and personal constructed† (1999, p. 174).Such ¶n (1987) is of the theory within practice, and the use of such a process ultimately leads to expertise. He identified two possible processes of reflection, a retrospective analysis of experiences, the reflection-on-action and the reflection-in-action, which is the process of reflection as an active part of the experience. In the reflection-on-action a teacher will reflect after a lesson on the process by thinking about the lesson, reflecting on the good and bad moments in the lecture, considering how to improve on the bad elements and how to build on the good moments.Reflection-on-action will be possible through self -examination, student assessments, student feedback of lesson ND discussions of mentor teachers (Howell, 2014). Reflection-in-action is used more by teachers with existing knowledge of teaching and experience of the learning process and is used to assess the student participation, knowledge, understanding and learning during the lesson (Howell, 2014). A third process of reflection is a proactive reflection known as reflection-for-action (Collier, 1999, p. 174). Howell (2014) uses this third process of reflection, before-action, which allows her to consider her lesson before it takes place.This process of reflection allows the cheer to be in a position to consider what will be taught, how it will be taught and he or she can develop an inner attitude of gratitude that will positively influence the attitude of the learners. Reflection does not always occur on the same level and, is depending on the circumstances and experiences of the teacher. Reflection will be influenced by the teach er's knowledge of the subject matter, her understanding of the teaching process as well as her personal circumstances and attributes. Howell (2014) identified these levels as technical, practical and critical reflection.The chemical level is concern with â€Å"effective application of educational knowledge and skill†, the practical level describes â€Å"an experience so that a subjective perception or commitment to a certain theory or system† is noticed and critical reflection is â€Å"indicated by a high degree of open-mindedness including ethical/moral and social considerations† (Collier, 1999, p. 174). These levels of reflection exist and work together (Howell, 2014) and research has indicated that new teachers often apply all these levels of reflection and all levels are equally important in the learning process Collier, 1999, p. 74). The teacher, as well as the learner in the sense that both teacher and learner bring certain attributes to the learning proce ss, will influence the process. Unless a teacher is capable of reflection he might not be able to bring about long term positive outcomes within the learning process. Teachers are often influenced by outside factors when faced with difficult situations within the class room and can easily, unconsciously develop standard problem solving tactics, left unexamined for years (Shortchange & Vassals, 2005, p. 45). Shortchange & Vassals (2005, . 9) refers too five phase structured reflection process. In this process there is an action from the teacher, followed by a retrospective look back on the action, an awareness of essential aspects of the action, the creating of alternative methods of action and a re-trial of the action. Palmer, as quoted by Howell (2014) stated, â€Å"good teaching comes from the identity and integrity of the teacher†. Every teacher has certain identities, pre-set ideas and assumptions which he or she brings into the class room and these identities, personal v iews and assumptions will influence how e or SE teach and what he or she teach.This in turn will influence what our described as paradigmatic, prescriptive, and casual assumptions (Brookfield, 1995, p. 4). Paradigmatic assumptions are very difficult to identify and they are basic structuring of ideas we use to order the world, perspective assumptions are assumptions about what we think ought to happen in a situations and causal assumptions assist us in understanding the different processes within the working world and how processes work (Brookfield, 1995, p. 3).As teachers we must be able o reflect on these predetermined assumptions to enable us to build on our professional development. According to Shortchange & Vassals (Shortchange & Vassals, 2005, p. 53) it is important for a teacher, specially a new teacher to be able to get in touch with these different identities. They refer to reflection, which can take place on different inner levels. Where a teacher sees him or herself in a specific role within the class room, the teacher might be set on a mission to fulfill this role and beliefs which in turn may create behavior issues in the class (Shortchange & Vassals, 2005).It s only if the teacher reflect on what it is that he or she is doing that causes the behavior problem and ask why he or she is doing it that they might find an alternative to their perceived reality. This requires the teacher to do introspective reflection of her own actions, which is a very difficult task for anybody to achieve. Often reflection can focus mainly on the technical or practical levels, without being critical. According to Brookfield (1995, p. 9) critical reflection will assist the teacher in unearthing the ways in which power is present in and distort the educational recess.Reflection is important for teachers both in their professional development as teachers as well as their personal growth as educators. Reflection will lead to new and better understanding of the learning pr ocess, often plagued with assumptions. The application of a reflective practice will lead to better Judgment, an examined common sense and better learning and understanding of our students who, in observing us, will develop their own reflective practices (Howell, 2014).Part of a reflective practice includes consultation with our peers and the enquiry into our caching by way of student evaluations. Student evaluations can form a very good reflective technique enabling a teacher to reflect on how her classes are received by her students instead of assuming that learning has taken place. An advantage of student feedback is to determine from the students how they engage with the lesson, what did they find interesting and what did not work for them.One of the disadvantages of this form of feedback could lead to very subjective feedback from students, which is not a reflection of the true ability of the teacher. Brookfield (1995, p. 7) refers to the â€Å"perfect ten syndrome† wher e teachers who receive a less then perfect score assume that they are not worthy teachers. Teachers disregard the complimentary and good feedback, concentrating only on the negative aspects of the feedback. This reaction is based on the preconceived assumption of teachers that good teaching is always followed by positive and good student evaluations.Critically reflection will assist the teacher in recognizing these unrealistic assumption and enable him or her to know that the â€Å"complexities of learning† as well as the students win attitudes towards their studies and the teacher self has influenced the low score. Equally, a perfect score could be indicating the teachers only accommodated the students in their preferred learning styles without testing the student outside of critique and was not developed to be the only answer in the learning process however I think that the advantages of reflective practice including student feedback outweigh the disadvantages.Student feedb ack is important for the teachers' own understanding of the learning process and it can contribute to the students sense of ratification in the learning process, displacing the inherent assumption of teacher power over student. As a negative aspect of the student reflections it may over power students, giving them the false assumption that they control the learning process. I think that the teacher and the students, accepting the true negative issues as such, should critically reflect on the outcome of student feedback in an open process in a positive manner to overcome the negative issues.At the same time positive issues should also be considered and build on in future. In conclusion I can ay that reflection is a process of deep questioning set assumptions and believes within the learning process to enable a better understanding of the process, to develop as a diverse teacher and to ensure maximum learning within the learning process. If reflection takes place before-action, the te acher will be able to prepare with gratitude, to enter the learning action with thankfulness and to convey a positive and thankful attitude to the students, creating an optimal learning environment.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

How Does Spielberg create fear and humour within ‘Jaws’?

The film â€Å"Jaws† was made in 1975 and was the film that brought the director Steven Spielberg his first major success. The film, with Spielberg as director, won three academy awards for editing, sound and original source. Spielberg, as a result of the film, became one of America's youngest multi millionaires. Spielberg was given $7,000,000 to spend as the films budget. This may not seem a large sum of money compared to the sort of money that is spent on films nowadays but, it was a very large sum of money to spend on a film in those days. The film received mostly positive reviews, there was the odd bad review, which was critical of Jaws not being able to make the audience feel sorry for the victims. The film is based on Peter Benchley's best selling novel, in which Jaws centres around the fictional North Atlantic resort island of Amity. A gigantic great white shark terrorizes the island. There are two killings at the beginning of the film, which brings in Matt Hooper, played by Richard Dreyfuss, an ichthyologist and oceanographer that is taken to Amity to help, using his expertise. Later on in the film, Amity's most respected and most feared shark hunter, the enigmatic, vaguely malicious Quint teams up with Matt Hooper and the chief of the Amity Police Department, Brody, to find and kill the enormous shark and save the town from financial disaster. Jaws has one of the best anti-heroes movies have ever seen, Quint played by Robert Shaw is humorous and is frightening all at once. His soliloquy in which he tells the others about the tragic sinking of the USS Indianapolis is a most chilling and unforgettable performance. As well as analysing the storyline and plot, many other aspects of the film should be analysed such as: digetic and non-digetic sound, camera angles and their effects and the use of props and setting. It would be impossible to analyse the entire film in such depth without producing an epic piece of writing, therefore for the purpose of this essay an indepth analysis of the second attack will be used to show how fear and humour are used. John William's had to make the music scary as the shark is not seen at the beginning therefore it needs the music to build suspense. It is instantly recognisable and almost as famous as the music from Physco. One of the reasons the music had to create the idea of the shark effectively was because, obviously Spielberg could not use a real shark. There was a mechanical model of a shark built (it was nicknamed â€Å"Bruce†). It created many problems. â€Å"Bruce† was made of polyurethane, was 24ft long and weighed 11/2 tons. On â€Å"Bruce's† first test, he sank, and on his second, he exploded. An inspection of the shark revealed that the shark was cross-eyed and its jaws would not shut. These problems compelled Spielberg to be more inventive and to hide the shark for as long as he could throughout the movie. The Stravinskian rhythms of John Williams's remarkable score created the idea of a menacing underwater killer. The fear that William's created meant that the horror of the Shark is left to the audience's imagination which is far scarier than anything the most creative special effects department could create. In the second attack, the camera is placed in front of Brody and characters walk in front of the camera, we get an interrupted view of the sea, like Brody does and this creates tension. There is an over the shoulder shot of a girl screaming, this prepares the audience for the attack. There is also digetic sound, such as splashing and the sound of laughter helps to build atmosphere of calm and fun. The close up of the people in the sea and screams build up the tension. The dog owner shouting his dog lets the audience know the shark is around. When we see the stick floating in the sea, that the owner of the dog has thrown, it is confirmed that the dog has been attacked, this builds the fear and tension for the audience as we know the little boy on the lilo is still out at sea. The non-digetic sound is the music and its effect is that we know the music represents the shark, we don't have to see it. The underwater shot also represents the shark with the views of children's legs which creates fear without seeing the shark itself. The climax of the music lets you know the attack will happen. The zoom in on Brody further heightens the fear. The victims are coded, Dog owner wears yellow, boy goes out to sea on yellow lilo and his mother wears a yellow hat. The police chief's nervousness and refusal to go near the water is first seen in comic terms by the islanders, but is gradually vindicated by a slow slippage of menacing imagery- a disappearing dog, an anxious mother and a sudden, gushing fountain of red that signals a fatal attack. This contrast between tension and humour creates a wave-like rollercoaster of emotion for the audience which has the effect of increasing the tension. Overall the film creates a rollercoaster effect, with the humour in the film given the audience a short respite in the tension. Which later further heightens the more tense movements and the attack. This is all done very cleverly because the use of non-digetic sound and shark view camera angles create tension and fear without actually seeing the shark and without seeing the attacks.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Minerals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Minerals - Essay Example Crespo et al., (2004) reported that disseminated graphite only occurred in metamorphic rocks of the La Umbria series and Fuente del Oro in the â€Å"Aracena Metamorphic Belt†. The deposits of graphite are weathered at 50 to 65 feet in depth. Coherence between graphite and other minerals is lessened due to weathering. Subsurface mining needs the cutting of multiple shafts to access the graphite deposits. Sometimes, tunneling equipments are used to remove the rock. Both, crystalline, and flake Graphite are graded as per carbon contents, and size of particles. Graphite with a high purity is only achieved through heating in the electric furnaces. Ash chemistry and likely applications are applied to grade the Flake carbon (80-99%), crystalline graphite (90-99%) and amorphous carbon (70-85%). Graphite’s purity is determined on the basis of Carbon contents and size of particles while amorphous Graphite is classified only on the basis of the carbon contents. Both, synthetic and natural graphite are heated up to 2500 °C that produces the graphite of a high purity 99.9%. Silicon and Boron are used as promoter elements for the graphite structure. Introduction of these elements enhances the consistency, conductivity and lubricant properties of the graphite (Crossely, 2000). Usually two techniques named as open pit mining and underground mining are used for graphite mining. Open pit mining is the method for the extraction of rocks from the open pits. This technique is useful when graphite ore lies close to the surface of the earth. On the other hand, underground mining involves the mining of graphite placed at the depth under the surface of the earth. Drift mining, slope mining, shaft mining and hard rock mining are the important methods for the underground mining (Crusher in China, 2012). Mining process of Graphite requires the power operations at the mining locations. The construction, decommissioning and operations

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Advantages of Economic Growth Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Advantages of Economic Growth - Essay Example It, therefore, includes all the goods and services manufactured in the country for sale (McCartney, 2015). Considering the recent economic growth in the UK, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) has shown that the economy of UK grew by 2.6% last year. It is the swift pace since 2007, increasing from 1.7% in 2013. It is also shown that the economy grew by 0.5% in the last three months in 2014. It represented a slow in growth from 0.7% shown in the earlier three months (Office for National Statistics, 2015). Economic growth has shown to have various benefits to a country experiencing it. Countries such as UK, US, and other western countries are currently enjoying the benefits ripped from the high rate of economic growth. Various benefits are seen in countries experiencing economic growth. These benefits include: higher incomes, decreased unemployment, decreased borrowing by the government, improved services to the public, environmental protection and investment. Economic growth is a drive towards high rate of employment. Firms and business producing more outputs usually have the need of bringing more people into their premises. They bring in many people to work thus increasing the population of the employed (Belfield, Cribb, Hood & Joyce, 2014). This kind of benefit has been observed in the UK in the recent years. The unemployment rate in the UK has been shown to have fallen again with the wage growth hitting nearly four-year high as shown by the official figures. The population of peopl e that have been reported to be out of work in February and April reduced by 43,000 to 1.81 million (Lea, 2015). The rate of jobless remained steady at 5.5%, the minimum level as from August. Wage rises have shown to have grown at a faster rate as from August 2011, increasing 2.7% both with and without bonuses.  

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Digital Technologies and Contemporary Patterns of Music Essay

Digital Technologies and Contemporary Patterns of Music - Essay Example The rapid growth in the digital music market has received a major boost from the ever-increasing popularity of various online music download stores such as various streaming services and iTunes. Modern music consumers are spoilt for options in the possible methods that are at their disposal through which they can be able to acquire new music. These sources range from a wide variety of several non-paid and paid legitimate sources to some other unlawful channels. The impact of the use of digital technology in music production and distribution and the subsequent impact on music consumption is a topic that has been seen to draw a wide variety of comments from several legal experts, pundits, scholars and the music industry (Halsey and Wooley 2009). Â  The traditional economic and social arrangements that used to surround the production and distribution of music are breaking down at an ever accelerating rate and markets are becoming more consolidated. This paper seeks to establish just how the use of these digital technologies can be seen to be impacting the modern consumer’s consumption of music. Â  Several decades before the advent and widespread use of the Internet, the music industry was seen to be relatively healthy and its worldwide sales were seen to peak considerably in 1998 (Baym, 2010). Since this peak, the spread of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, such as Napster have greatly contributed towards the overall decline in the general sale of CDs. The monopoly that was being exercised by reproduction of high-quality reproductions was effectively eliminated with the digitization of music such that the illegal copies being reproduced were now being produced having equal quality standards to the original music (May 2007). Concomitantly, the production of intangible digitized music has resulted in the emergence of new consumption practices. Â  

Friday, July 26, 2019

Friendship in Julius Caesar Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Friendship in Julius Caesar - Essay Example ever, Antony unlike his friend show his complete devoutness to Caesar when he was call by Caesar, and he responded to "Here, my lord.† Subsequently, the Caesar’s conspirator that is Cassius, Decius and Brutus had used their friendship as concealment to blind Caesar from the truth. Since, Caesar was predisposed to the power of amity just as any other ordinary person this blinded him thus making him unable to understand the reality as it was. For instances, Decius, who is one of the Caesar‘s schemers, came to Caesar’s house, and the first thing that he said was â€Å"Caesar, all hail! Good morrow, worthy Caesar."(2.2. 58-59). Decius perceives Caesar as "most mighty" and this made Caesar become even more comfortable with Decius. Conversely, it was through this that Caesar‘s conspirators were able to plan for the killing of Caesar. Brutus, Decius and, Cassius knew that by ascertaining Caesar that they had solid friendship him this will give them a chance to lure Caesar. For that reason, Brutus, Decius and, Cassius decided to use their excellent established relationship with Caesar in an utterly deceiving manner, in order to ‘exterminate’ him. Hence, Decius a friend to Caesar was able to start this plan by using sycophancy and swift wit in order to trick and persuades Caesar into going to the congress house, in spite of the factual that Caesar’s wife know as Calpurnia had dreams of Caesars homicide the night-time before. Still, Decius was able to his own conspiracy to convinces to Caesar that, â€Å"This dream is all amiss interpreted; it was a vision fair and fortunate†( 2.2. 83-84). Moreover, Decius continue to convinces his friend Caesar by misinterpreted the dream as he to ld him that dream was a noble one and that it was through him that Rome would be invigorated into an inordinate city once more (Shakespeare, 28). Interestingly, Caesar was very delighted with Decius’s interpretation of his wife dream, and this excitement had delighted him so much

Short-term obligations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Short-term obligations - Essay Example It is evident from the study that businesses apply a variety of ways to finance their short term obligations. The obligations are outstanding payments that are to be made but outweigh organization’s current assets. As a result, external sources are the only available options for offsetting the liabilities. One off the approaches to financing ‘short-term’ obligation is the use of trade creditors. Creditors are entities that are owed money by the organization for goods delivered or services offered to the company. They occur when benefits are received but no consideration is transferred. The effect of trade creditors is that they allow for retention of cash and cash equivalence within the organization. The cash that would have been paid to the creditors can then be used as a source of finance to ‘short-term’ obligation. ‘Short term’ obligations can also be financed through ‘short term’ loans. Banks and other financial instituti ons offer financial services that an organization can use for financing its current liabilities. There exists a wide variety of ‘short term’ loans. Unsecured loans as well as loans that are offered upon guarantee are examples of available options from the financial institutions. â€Å"Revolving line of credit† is another possible option for financing the ‘short term’ obligations. The arrangement in which a bank agrees to offer specified amount of money to an enterprise on a renewable term provides availability of funds as may be needed by an organization. This is because once an arrangement is made for the revolving fund; the company is assured of obtaining it in case of need. (Worldacademy, n.d., 1; Pride, Hunges and Kapoor, 2011, 577). Factoring is another suitable approach to financing ‘short term’ obligations. This is defined as the transfer of rights over debtors to a third party for finances. The arrangement involves a form of sale of debtors’ accounts to another entity that will then offer money based on the accounts receivables balances and the risks involved in the accounts. The transaction also offers money for offsetting ‘short term’ obligations. Other possible methods of financing ‘

Thursday, July 25, 2019

FedEx Strategy at the Business, Corporate, and Network Levels Term Paper

FedEx Strategy at the Business, Corporate, and Network Levels - Term Paper Example Federal Express' clients ranged from large scale business to individual customers that required a wide range of services. As such, Federal Express needed to find a way to meet the needs of the various groups of customers that it provided services to. By streamlining its operations and by integrating its various systems, the company was able to develop a customer logistics management segment of its business to cater especially to its large-scale business clients that required such service (Conley et al, 2000). This included providing warehousing and distribution services that cut the costs for its business customers. Such strategy demonstrates the company's way of dealing with the paradox of market adaptation and resource leveraging. Having identified the needs of its clientele, FedEx used the extensive resource base it had in order to meet these needs. Since the company had established a logistics infrastructure, it merely put to good use the resources it already had. Federal Express understood the value of information for all its clients. As such, it continuously searched for various ways to improve the transfer of information between itself and its customers. Even before the FedEx website was launched in 1994, the company had already developed a number of computer programs and systems that allowed customers to acquire the information they needed regarding shipments including ordering and tracking. This is another demonstration of the company's ability to use its resources in order to adapt to the demands in the market. Since the demand was for better information sources, FedEx used its IT expertise in order to come up with a system that meets such needs.The acquisition became the strategy to better meet the needs of Federal Express Customers. After officially acquiring Parts Bank in 1988, FedEx, later on, acquired Caliber Systems in 1998. This enabled FedEx to create a corporation which had the ability to meet most, if not all, of the logistics and transportation needs of companies. Furthermore, FedEx underwent a process of reorganization wherein certain subsidiaries were combined.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

International business strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

International business strategy - Essay Example However, Anthony Salim and his executive leadership group believe that being flexible to these unpredictable and changing dynamics of international culture and business competition is the key to success. Bartlett, Ghoshal & Beamish (2008) identify the concept of the coordinated federation, which is essentially a conglomeration of pre-existing core principles that have found business success at the headquartered centre of the company and then distributed equally across international boundaries. The Salim Group takes the advice of Bartlett et al. in not taking this rather unproductive distribution of core principles and then forcing them throughout the transnational environment and the business’ multiple industries. Instead, Salim advises on being adaptable to changing market conditions. This flexibility is a success factor to be more responsive to the external market environment. For example, the Salim Group faced public backlash with perceived corruption from the Indonesian go vernment between the Salim Group about its investment banking practices (Dieleman, 2006) for divesting 107 different assets to the Indonesian government. ... Though this is only one scenario that occurred with the Salim Group, it indicates that regional government and other influencing bodies in the regulatory environment continue to change the internal dynamics of how the business is operated and/or divested. This is why Salim continues to travel, personally, to different regions of the world to gain an understanding of what is driving governmental forces or cultural forces in key growth markets or existing markets so that the business can be structured accordingly or new strategies developed based on primary data research analysis. This type of flexibility by taking a proactive stand to leadership and research is a key success dynamic. Since more than one legal basis for operations drives this transnational company, such flexibility is a predictor of future success by fully understanding the forces that will impede business success or improve its competitive or public relations position. Anthony Salim is also open to being approached by new investors from multiple regions of the world in order to seize opportunities to expand the business or put it into a better financial position over the long-run. Salim fully recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of the firm, such as his indication that the group is not fluent in technological prowess, thus not having an attitude of superiority in any one division that might not be supported by actual business realities. Salim relies on synergies produced from acquired businesses or other strategic activities involving a secondary business and allows the firm to capitalize on these strengths through acquisition. In many ways, the case study reinforces that Anthony Salim is more focused on consumer relationship management and the marketing principles for

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Impact of cigarette packages warning labels on Saudi Arabian people Research Proposal

Impact of cigarette packages warning labels on Saudi Arabian people and to what extent - Research Proposal Example In 2012, six Gulf States enforced a law to use graphic warnings which will be printed in all cigarette boxes. Some of the images are of ill people, skeletons, black teeth, and other pictures that are discouraging smokers to quit their behavior. Furthermore, the images are accompanied by warning phrases. However, a study that was conducted in Saudi Arabia indicates that these measures have done very little in deterring smokers from going on with their behaviors. With Saudi Arabia being the 23rd country with the largest number of smokers despite having a small population of approximately 25 million people, the measures are yet to yield any fruits. Many of the smokers in the country have stated that they are more aware of the consequences of their behavior than before (Fischhoff, Brewer, Downs, & United States, 2011). Have the graphic images have not dampened their desire to smoke. Many state that whenever they come across the graphic warnings, they become more aware that smoking is hazardous to their health. Nevertheless, the addition empowers these cautions and the desire to quit the vice. Labeling of cigarette packages with warnings has a major impact on deterring new smokers from starting this behavior. Many of the young people feel that the graphic images make them to think of the repercussions of starting this behavior. However, those who were already affected by addition find it very hard to stop it (La, 2013). Therefore, the number of people who are joining the list of smokers has reduced in Saudi Arabia. However, the number of those who are quitting is very minimal. This is an indication that the warnings are more effective in deterring non-smokers not to engage in smoking behavior rather than encouraging the smokers to quit this vice. Therefore, the government should implement other more effective measures such as imposing stricter law on public smoking and stiff penalties to those who

Monday, July 22, 2019

Understand a Child and Young Persons Development Essay Example for Free

Understand a Child and Young Persons Development Essay Physical development 0-3 months New babies start swallowing and sucking reflexes begin. They grasp your finger if you put your finger in their palm. If babies are held up on their feet they usually make stepping movements. When babies hear a sudden sounds or a light is suddenly switched on they will startle by moving their arms outwards and clenching their fists. Towards the end of 3 months babies look less curled up and startles less as they get used to their new surroundings. 3-6 months- By now they have grown in height and have gained weight. Babies are likely to cry less and learn the difference between day and night and are able to sleep through the night. They will start to smile and the sound of their parent’s voice, and start to lift and turn their heads. 6-9 months- Babies are more alert and turn their heads to see what is happening, they showing they are enjoying themselves by smiling and making noises. They can now react out to grab a toy and pass it from one hand to another. They try to communicate by making noises back to you as if they are talking and answering your questions. They also try to grab the spoon when you are trying to feed them at this age. Babies sit up with a support of their high chair or a person or propped up with pillows. They start rolling on their back from their fronts. 9-12 months- Most babies by now are starting to crawl and finding their way around, even if it’s rolling or shuffling. They now sit out without any support and they want to explore so much more. They pick up objects and become more skilled at this. They feed themselves with their fingers. 1-2 years- At this age children can stand up and hold onto furniture, they can crawl very quickly and being skilled at using their hands. They get repeative with things they do such as taking hat off or pulling socks off, this also gets the adults attention. At 18months they begin to find their feet more and enjoy the freedom it gives them. They now can sit on toys and push themselves along with their legs for example- a small truck. 2-4 years- At 2 years old children move confidently and enjoy walking and being able to choose what they want to play with. They may start running and climbing at this age or it could take them till 3 years, depends on the child. They now enjoy pedaling a tricycle or pushing it along with their feet. Some children at this age can walk upstairs using alternative feet. 4-7 years- Children are now using their hands everyday for themselves enjoying activities such as coloring, painting, threading, pouring, controlling a mouse on the computer, and using scissors. They are also able to catch and throw a ball, kick and control a ball. Being to write and using more fine motor skills. 7- 12 years- At this age children find writing and reading a lot easier, handwriting becomes neater and drawings. Also cutting things out is more accurate. From 9 onwards they can now read, write , draw. They have greater coordination and speed when carrying out both fine and large movements, Such as running, football. 12-16 years- Physical changes start happening to the body to prepare for adulthood. Girl’s puberty starts around 11 years, whereas boys may not start until they are 13 or 14 years old. This can cause embarrassment and fell anxious. 16- 19 years- Body changes to prepare for adulthood. Boys may get beards and their voices may start to change. Girls around the age of 15 or 16 will have finished puberty, whereas the boys may have started age 13 or 14 and is likely to take about 3 years to complete. Intellectual and cognitive development 0-3 months- Babies will recognize the smell and sounds of parents voice, they may stop crying when this happens knowing that they are safe. They also try hard to focus on your face, but hold them 20-25 cm away from you as they may be able to see you. 3-6 months- They start to notice mobiles and other objects around them and watch people move around. 6-9 months- Babies explore objects with their mouth as well as their fingers. They will spend a lot of time sitting and playing. Around 8-9 months babies understand that objects and people still exist even when they are not in sight. This is where they make a fuss when their familiar career leaves the room. 9-12 months- They explore objects with their hands and mouth. They start to recognize the daily routine, e.g. know when its dinner time, or bath time they get excited when maybe you start running the bath or put them in their highchair ready for dinner. 1-2 years- Children at this age start to understand more of what is happening around them, they understand more of what is people said. They also have an enjoyment of pop-up toys and play with building bricks and do simple jigsaw puzzles. They recognize the daily routines such as becoming excited when they hear the bath water running as they know its bath time. They start to want some independence at this age, and are developing as individuals. 2-4 years- Children at this age play with small world e.g. farm animals, peppa pig and pretend in the role play area they act out everyday thing and copy what they may have seen at home. E.g. mum washing up or dad making the dinner. They become interested in mark making, painting and books. 4-7 years- They will start to plan their own play and have definite ideas of what they want to do and achieve, they are also becoming even more independent. Children at this age concentrate when activity is interesting to them and have the ability to count and do simple calculations. They also read books silently on their own. 7-12 years- Children at this age can read books silently on their own, they also organize their own play and games and can problem solve e.g. how to play a game. And they enjoy practical situations in which they have to work things out for themselves. 12-16 years- At this age children can problem solve and reason on their own, they also understand the more abstract concepts. They also may try to push the boundaries at home and question why they are in place. 16-19 years- Young people at this age have a higher level of skills such as computers, mobile phone and all the latest technology. And they explore their own identity and develop own personality and create their own space. Communication development 0-3 months- Babies start to cry when hungry tired or distressed, they also start to coo when contented for about 5 weeks. Babies cry to communicate their needs and parents may start to understand the different is types of cries. Babies may stop crying when they hear their parents soothing voice. 3-6 months- At this age babies will start to smile back when they see a smiling face they also start to show they understand a little of what is being said to them. They try to communicate back by cooing and gargling 6-9 months- Babies arms start lifting up to show their parents or carer they want to be picked up they show they understand a little of what is being communicated to them by smiling and squealing 9-12 months- Babies are developing language at this age, they start to make tuneful strings of babbling. They start to point fingers to draw attention of parents for objects they want and have an understanding of what some words mean e.g. get excited when they hear words such as drink or dinner. 1-2 years- At 1 year old strings of babbling are still they way in which babies try to communicate but are beginning to use first words which are usually noticed bye their parents or carers around the age of 13 months. Children at 18 months are still developing their language skills, they start to use a few words e.g. ‘ juice’ ‘muma’ ‘dada’ they understand a lot more of what adults are saying to them. Towards the age of two years they may have a vocabulary of up to 200 words 2-4 years- Children at this age start putting together two words such as ‘daddy gone’ and their speech begins to be understood by adults. By three years their language is really starting to develop they express their ideas and are even starting to use sentences. Children at this age start to pick up what is being said around them and may use this in their communication. 4-7 years- Speech is now easily understood they are beginning to develop friendships and enjo y communicating with their friends and asking them questions. At the age of 5 plus they have the ability to socialize such as beginning to hear and make jokes. 7-12 years- At this age they are telling a lot more jokes and enjoy chatting to their friends. They will start to have verbal arguments with friends and family they also can become persuasive and make deals with people. At 9 years old they can now read write and draw and show imagination. 12-16 years- At this age they have good reading and writing skills they also can be persuasive and make deals with adults and peers. They can use phones and other technologies to communicate such as instant messaging sites. 16-19 years- At this age the use of phones and technology is very important to them to communicate with their friends. Friends are very important at this age more important than being with their family because they feel they are better to go to for support and advice. Social, emotional and behavioral development 0-3 months- Babies love close contact between their primary carers , especially when their feeding. Babies smile when they are asleep and they begin to smile when content around 5 weeks old. 3-6months- They sleep a lot less at this age, and smile more often as they are alert of parent’s voice and movement. They enjoy bath time. 6-9months-Babies around 6 months are usually settled in a routine. They smile a lot when they are playing with familiar people. 9-12months- Babies try to stay close to their parents or carers at this age. They will protest when they leave the room as they know they are gone and it might work to get them to come back. 1-2years- Children at this age stay close to their parents or carers and can get anxiety if people they don’t know come over to them or pick them up. This is the age they become interested in playing with other children, and appear to have signs of temper and frustration. 2-4 years- Children at this age play next to other children but not necessary with them, they copy what other children do and put this into play. Temper tantrums can become more frequent at this age. By the age of 3 years some children may play with other children more and they become more cooperative in play. 4-7 years- At this age they start to play with other children and they begin to form friendships and know who they like to play with, and may seek this friend out to play with. They may have the odd argument with their friend over a toy but it is soon resolved. They also respond well to adults praise. 7-12 years- Children have stable friendships by now and are going over to friend’s houses for tea and maybe over night. They have enthusiasm when given responsibility. E.g. when asked to watch little brother or sister. 12-16 years- At this age they have very strong attachments with friends and this is very important to them. They may experience pressure at school and become anxious about going to school. They start to try and push boundaries in their relationships with their parents. 16-19years- Young adults have confidence and enjoyment when it comes to relationships with their peers. They may feel left out if they don’t have a group of friends. Behaviour could be linked to low self esteem which could lead to drinking, drugs and early promiscuity. Moral development 0-3months- Babies have their first smile at about 5 to 6 weeks old. 3-6 months- Babies show joy by smiling, cooing and laughing when they are fed, comfortable or safe. 6-9 months- At this age babies show joy by smiling, cooing and laughing when they are fed, comfortable or safe. They cry when distressed or unhappy. 9-12 months-Babies at this age have no understanding of right or wrong, but starts to understand word ‘NO’ when applied with a firm voice. 1 2 years Sensitive to adult approval and disapproval, despite tantrums and bursts of anger. No understanding of right from wrong, but understanding yes or no. 2-4 years –No understanding of right or wrong but start to follow simple rules most of time. By the age of 3 and a half they are beginning to know right from wrong and are more self-controlled and less aggressive. They want to be good, but is not yet sure how to carry out most promises. 4-7 years –Children at this age are willing to be good, but may tell lies or blame others for doing wrong because of intense desire to please and do right. 7-12 years –Children at this age may experience guilt and shame. They have difficulty admitting mistakes. Is aware of right and wrong and they want to do right. 12-16 years –Children by now know right and wrong, they try to weigh up alternatives and make some decisions alone .And are usually reasonably thoughtful and at this age they are unlikely to lie. 16-19 years –Young adults at this age experiences feelings of frustration, anger, sorrow, and isolation. May become confused and disappointed and this could result in being interested in early promiscuity as response to physical-emotional urges.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Evaluating the ISO 9001

Evaluating the ISO 9001 THE IMPACT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO 9000 ON BUSINESS PERFORMANCE Abstract This research work is intended to evaluate the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System Standard, by going into its historical perspective, its dimensions in meeting quality management objectives and effectiveness in its operation internationally. The standard is generic in nature and can be applied to any kind or organisation in manufacture/production, services or a combination of these. It is founded on eight quality management principles that are respectively, customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approach, systems approach to management, continual improvement, factual approach to decision making and mutually beneficial supplier relationships. Application of these principles can lead an organisation to maintain sustainable business performance in a highly competitive business environment, benefiting the organisation, customers and other stakeholders. Implementation of the quality management system as per ISO 9001:2008 entails the following steps: * Nominating a leader for implementing the project * Formulating Quality Policy and Objectives * Providing appropriate training for all employees * Conducting gap analysis of the organisations system vis-à  -vis the Requirements in the standard * Filling the identified gaps through introduction of new procedures and new records. * Preparing Quality manual and documentation required at different levels. * Conducting internal audits and management reviews * Arranging Third Party Audit if certification is intended. There are differing opinions about the outcome of operational benefits of implementation of the system. Generally, benefits accrue to the organisation if the management is committed and do all what are necessary to involve managers and employees. There is a criticism that many organisations implement quality management systems out of external compulsions such as stipulation from customers or regulatory authorities. It is possible that internal commitment in such cases will be low. If that is the case, the benefits of implementation may be marginal. The ISO standards are voluntary and are internationally popular. These are followed in 175 countries in the world. The number of certifications on ISO 9001 is steadily growing. Organisations desirous of satisfying customers and achieving continual improvements should implement the system. Design/ methodology This research work aims to scan only published information on the subject of ISO 9001: 2008 standards. This will include the historical perspective of quality management, development of the international standards, the management principles built into the standards, implementation of ISO 9001: 2008 in an organisation and its effect on business performance besides the international acceptance of the ISO standard. There are books exclusively dealing with quality management, and the subject is covered in general in other management books such as operations management. The historical perspectives are expected to be obtained from these books as well as from the website of the International Organization for Standardization. There are popular Journals that are devoted on specialised subjects such as the International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Quality management etc. These journals contain a number of research papers relating to implementation of ISO 9000 and the findings of scholars on organisational performance. It is expected that the secondary data will adequately support the research objectives. Findings ISO 9001: 2008 is the latest version of the international standard on quality management. Quality management standards initially released in 1987 and its subsequent revision in 1994 were focused on quality assurance without particular focus on customers. Revision made in 2000 and revision in 2008 focuses on customers and includes relevant TQM principles. There are organisations implementing ISO 9001 out of earnestness for continual improvements and there are others implementing it for obtaining certification status to â€Å"signal† customers or for meeting regulatory requirements. The study concludes that those who implement the standards with an internal will, fully involving managers and employees will be benefited and those who implement out external pressures or other extraneous reasons, gain only marginally. The ISO 9001 standards are popular worldwide and the number of certifications is growing steadily. Originality value The researcher does not claim any new findings, as the study has been based on information already in public domain. The publication will have its own value due to its exclusive assemblage of ideas. This will be interesting for readers who want to get a composite exposure to ISO 9001: 2000 standards as this publication provides many ideas in one place. Key words Business performance, Customer focus, Customer satisfaction, Continual improvement ISO 9000, ISO 9001, ISO 9005, Product realization, Quality management, Quality Manual, Quality Policy, Quality objectives, Resource Management, Systems approach. Introduction It is the post World-War II business scenario that led organisations to recognise the cost of bad quality, and initiate the movement for improving quality of products and services to compete with international players. Across-the-border business, forced those who enjoyed a protected domestic market to either do or die. Consequently, companies started recognising the importance of adopting TQM for improved overall performance. The first ISO 9000 Quality Management System Standard was introduced by the International Organization for Standardization in 1987. It is understood that this was a modified version of the then existed British standard BS 5750.The first set of standards released in 1987 for Certification, comprises ISO 9001, ISO 9002 and ISO 9003. These were revised in 1994. The latter two standards were discontinued when updated in 2000 and in 2008, retaining only ISO 9001 with provisions for exclusions to suit those categories of organisations covered by the earlier standards of ISO 9002 and 9003. It has been mentioned in management books that there are two approaches to building a system. These are â€Å"building a system out of parts (the analytic approach)† and â€Å"building parts for a system (the holistic approach).† Hanna Mark D. and Rocky Newman W. in their book on operations management, 1 state that firms implementing TQM should take advantage of both the approaches. The authors narrate the experience of Ford Motor Company during the late 1970s to early 1980s about its decision to make own Transmission systems by â€Å"cloning† the Mazda Transmission plant 1 Hanna Mark, D Newman, Rocky,W., 2001. Operations Management (p.185) to partly substitute the system outsourced to Mazda. The Ford-built Transmission systems were found to cost much higher in meeting warranty related obligations. In other words the quality costs of Ford-made systems turned out to be higher. It is explained that the American employees defined a quality part as â€Å"one that was built to specifications.† The authors report that, when Ford employees were asked as to where the specifications came from, â€Å"employees pointed to the process engineers.† The process engineers stated that these came from the product engineers. The product engineers believed that making a specification more precise would raise quality, but at a higher manufacturing cost and therefore they wrote specifications compromising between acceptability and cost. Fords engineers later found that though Mazdas parts were four times likely to deviate from specifications, â€Å"there was much less variability form part to part.† The holistic thinking of the Mazda workers appeared to be the primary reason for superior performance. ISO 9001: 2008 quality management systems 2 is intended enable organisations to deliver quality products or services while continually improving and enhancing customer satisfaction. The standard is structured to adopt the â€Å"Process approach,† and is based on eight principles described in the publication that stands updated as ISO 9000 (2005) 3. These are well understood TQM principles. This research intends to go analytically into the eight principles mentioned above and to study its contributions to the management system. 2 ISO 9001:2008, Quality management systems- Requirements 3 ISO 9000:2005, Quality management systems- Fundamentals and vocabulary Research Objectives This research work has been planned to study: (1) Principles behind the Requirements in the standard ISO 9001: 2008 (2) Implementation of ISO 9001: 2008 in organisations. (3) Attitudes of business establishments towards implementation of ISO 9001: 2008 and its outcome on business performance (4) Attitude of countries towards ISO 9000. Research Design/ Methodology This assignment has been planned to rely on secondary data on various aspects of Quality Management and related information contained in publications. This will include books, Journals, publications of the International Organization for Standardization including information available on its website and secondary data on the subject displayed by others for commercial purposes on the Web. Literature Review There are books exclusively dealing with Quality Management. There are other books that cover limited but relevant aspects on quality such as contained in general books on management. It is expected that these books will provide adequate information. Several publications such as standards and supporting publications are available from the International Organization for Standardization. The subject of Quality Management and ISO 9000 are also covered in popular journals and it is intended to scan such journals. More sources will be identified during progressive stages of research. The initial sources identified for this research are listed below: BOOKS (1) ISO 9000: The Year 2000 and Beyond.3rd ed. (2000) by Perry L. Johnson This book covers the history of Quality movement and all aspects relating to the ISO standard in terms of requirements with explanatory notes, details of implementation, Third Party certification and benefits of operation of the system. (2) Encyclopaedia of Total Quality Management by Joel E. Ross (1995) This publication is very comprehensive, covering all aspects of Quality Management such as TQM, ISO 9000 and popular systems, tools and techniques that are applied currently. (3) Operations Management by Mark, D. Hanna Rocky W. Newman (2001) Chapter 5 in this book covers Total Quality Management and chapter 6 covers Quality Improvement Tools. Chapter 5 deals with TQM in general and gives details about ISO 9000, Quality Awards etc. (4) ISO 9001: 2000 Quality Management System Design by Jay Schlickman (2003) This book exhaustively covers all aspects of Quality Management and ISO 9001: 2000 in particular. (5) Total Quality 3rd ed. by Vincent K. Omachonu Joel E. Ross (2004) This book is devoted to Quality and it covers relevant aspects including ISO 9000. (6) ISO 9000 (2005): Quality Management Systems- Fundamentals and Vocabulary This publication explains the concepts employed in ISO 9000. This will support the analysis part of this research as this forms the basis for the ISO 9001: 2008 standard. (7) ISO 9001: 2008: Quality Management Systems- Requirements The requirements of the standard for implementation of the system are covered in this standard. This is a very important publication for this research. JOURNALS Journal articles appeared in relating to the subject have been identified for this research. Information contained in these articles to the extent these support the research will be used. The identified Journals are given below:  · The Quality Management Journal * Journal of Operations Management, * International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management * Quantitative Finance and Accounting * Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management.  · Benchmarking. Research Findings:General Principles of quality management Edward W. Deming, an American statistician was recognised as a guru on the subject of quality management, starting from his role in the Japanese industry in the latters pursuit for quality improvement in the 1950s. Demings model known as PDSA or PDCA is the basis for todays quality management, although many experts have improvised these into other models. Source: Schmoker Michael J., Wilson Richard B. p.17 There are four steps in PDSA. These are respectively Plan, Do, Study and Act.4 Developing a plan for a making product or for providing a service based on available data or information is the first step. The second step is to â€Å"Do† in the way it was planned. The third step is to â€Å"Study† (or check) the result to find whether the product or 4 Schmoker Michael J., Wilson Richard B., 1993. Total Quality Education: Profiles of Schools that Demonstrate the Power of Demings Management Principles. p.17 service achieved the planned attributes. The fourth stage provides for finding out the causes of deviations (if taken place) from planned results to modify the plan for subsequent cycles. J.M. Juran, another American quality expert, proposed the Financial and Quality Triologies which cover â€Å"planning, control and improvement.† The Financial Triology while said to succeed in some cases has its own limitations.5 Quality experts generally agreed that they need to address more organizational segments in the system, particularly customer satisfaction. Total Quality Management Total Quality Management (TQM) is an accepted approach to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction. Deming, in his book â€Å"Out of the Crisis,† 6 had set out 14 points for the US industry to practise to regain lost competitiveness. When Deming brought up these points, he was criticized for â€Å"putting forward a set of goals without providing any tools for managers to use to reach those goals.† 7 Nevertheless most of these principles have been adopted later. A functional model of a quality management system taken from Schlickman Jay 8 is given in 2. 5 Gupta Praveen, 2004. Six Sigma Business Scorecard: Ensuring Performance for Profit. p.5. 6 Deming W. Edward, 2000.Out of the Crisis. pp.23, 24 7 Cohen Phil. â€Å"n.d.† Demings 14 points. [online] 8 Schlickman Jay .2003.ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System Design.p.4. General findings about the standard Scope and application of ISO 9001:2008 The standard can be applied to all types of organisations irrespective of type, size or nature of the product, as the requirements in the standard are generic in nature. An organisation has the freedom to implement the requirements in the standard â€Å"for internal and external benefits.† It is also open to the organisation to decide on whether or not they seek certification. 9 The Process approach adopted in ISO 9001:2008. There are numerous processes and sub-processes in an organisation operated by functional and cross functional groups. In order to â€Å"do it right the first time† and â€Å"do 9 ISO Survey of Certifications (The). (2007) p.5. [Internet] the right things right,† processes should be managed effectively.10 Process management becomes effective, if processes are clearly defined and the right resources and controls are applied. Arbitrariness can creep into any process if process activities are not clearly defined. The publication of ISO 9000: 2005 gives a model of the process approach by considering the requirements in the standard as comprising four processes within the organisation, each process receiving input from an internal customer (within the organisation) or external customer. 3 gives the model of the process-based quality management system envisaged in the standard. 10 OR [Omachonu Vincent K., Ross Joel E.], 2004.Principles of Total Quality. p.225 While there are several processes and sub-processes in an organisation, the above model represents the requirements in the standard grouped into four processes. These are respectively management responsibility, resource management, product realisation and measurement, analysis and improvement. Principles forming the basis of the standard ISO 9000: 2005 lists out eight principles that have been incorporated in the standard. These are serially studied and analysed in the following sections: (1) Customer focus ISO 9000: 2005 (Cl.0.2. p.ii) states that organisations should â€Å"understand current and future customer needs† and â€Å"strive to exceed customer expectations.† Hill Charles W.L. and Jones Gareth R 11 observes that â€Å"a company must give customers what they want, when they want it and at a price they are willing to pay- so long as the companys long term profitability is not compromised in the process.† The authors mentioned this to highlight the importance of achieving superior responsiveness from customers. According to OR (11 Ibid.p.142), motivating the whole company to focus on the customer should be the first step. The means for this are â€Å"demonstrating leadership, shaping employee attitudes and using mechanisms for bringing customers to the company.† It is said that customer satisfaction is the result of a three part system that comprises (1) company processes, (2) company employees and (3) consistency of product or service to customer expectations (11 Ibid. p.208).The effectiveness of the system is a function of how well these three factors are integrated.† 11 Hill Charles W.L., Jones Gareth R.( 2004) Strategic Management. An Integrated Approach.p.142. (2) Leadership Defining Leadership is not as simple as it may appear to a common man. Northhouse Peter G., in his book 12 cites Stogdill (1974) to convey that â€Å"there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it.† The meaning in this case is to be understood in the context of the kinds of leadership required in organisations that require management and motivating skills to bring up cultural changes. Drummond Graeme., and Ensor John, 13observes that the â€Å"role of the leader is to get the best out of people and deal with the unexpected,† and â€Å"this is achieved by creating an environment where actions can take place.† The authors cite Adair (1984) to identify the following leadership needs: 1. Task needs- aiming to complete the project 2. Group needs- developing team spirit and morale 3. Individual needs- harmonising the above with the needs of the individual. The leader will â€Å"emphasize† task, group or individual needs depending on circumstances for accomplishing the objective. The above is diagrammatically presented 4. 12 Northhouse Peter G., 2003. Leadership: Theory and Practice 3rd ed. 13 Drummond Graeme, Ensor John, 2001. Strategic Marketing: Planning and Control.2nd ed.p.252 (3) Involvement of people. Involving personnel who are closest to the processes in decision making activities can bring better results, because it is they who are in the better know of things happening in their work environment and better placed to bring ideas for solving problems or for making improvements in processes or products. Improvements may be in the form of reduction in cycle time, reduction in cost, increase in throughput or in the form of decreasing the variations within the processes. HR policies in the company should be oriented to optimally improve employee involvement. As a basic step the wants and needs of employees have to be recognised. These can be achieved by motivating and appropriately empowering them to take their own decisions. Involvement can be improved by better communication with the workforce on customer requirements, communication of companys policies and objectives, providing training to update and improve job knowledge etc. (4) Process approach A process transforms inputs to outputs (ISO 9005: 2005.p.7). For the process to achieve the desired results, appropriate resources and controls are necessary. A holistic approach is required to get optimum results in terms of quality and cost, which means that the entire resources of functional teams should work with the common defined objective, without individual functions applying their own norms. The example of Ford Motor Company given in the introductory part of this research paper reveals the reported failure of the company to adopt a holistic approach. The process approach requires clearly defined roles of employees with a defined agenda and clear understanding of organisational policies and customer requirements. (5) Systems approach to management An organisation creates value for its customers. The contributions to value addition come from different functional groups. Value creation or addition also takes place in the entire supply chain. Therefore the organisation will be able to add value by facilitating the links in the supply chain as well. OR (10.Ibid.p.163) gives the example of Wal-Mart deriving advantage from the entire supply chain by using a â€Å"sophisticated computer-based information system that improved the output of many other activities such as distribution, purchasing and warehousing.† The systems approach uses benchmarking and data analysis to improve quality of products and services through various means. (6) Continual improvement Any organisation will require continual improvement for sustaining business in a highly competitive environment. Therefore this has to be a permanent objective. It calls for aligning activities of the organisation with organisational plan and making employees aware of the plans, providing training for them to realize that it is everybodys business. Benchmarking performance indices and communicating these to all and motivating them to achieve the set goals leads to continual improvements. (7) Factual approach to decision making A system generates data and this data requires to be transformed into useful information. This is possible through systematic analysis of these data. Effective decisions can be made by use of analysed data. Data and information should be maintained in a readily retrievable form to take correct decisions. (8) Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships An organisation and its suppliers are interdependent. If the relationship is maintained on a continuing basis the potential available with the suppliers can be fully exploited. Product improvement can take place from the initiatives of either side. Implementation of ISO 90012008 in Organisations The method of implementation of the system in an organisation venturing for the first time will involve the following steps as paraphrased from a document retrieved from Internet. 14 The proposal is to be considered a new project and resources have to be identified and earmarked for implementation. First a senior member of the management has to be placed as â€Å"Management Representative,† with responsibilities as described in clause 5.5.2 of the standard, that include developing implementing and maintaining the system. A steering committee comprising members from different functions should be constituted to work as a team for implementation of the project. The Management Representative is to be formally trained to take up the responsibilities. Other members and employees in general will require awareness training. This shall be arranged. The organisation has to formulate its Quality Policy as per requirements given in section 5.3 of the standard and measurable objectives originating from the policy have also to be identified as given in clause 5.4.1. The documentation requirements as given section 4.2 in the standard include: * A Quality Manual addressing all the requirements in the standard. * Procedures stated as essential in the standard besides procedures considered necessary by the organisation. * Records to evidence effective operation of the standard. The documentation hierarchy and guidance on preparation is available in ISO 10013. 15 Section 4.2.3 and 4.2.4 in the ISO 9001:2008 standard defines the controls prescribed for documents and records. Documents provide information for performing work and records evidence the performance of work. Section 8.2.2 of the standard prescribes Internal Quality Audits. Trained personnel are required for this. Nominating Auditor candidates and training them also forms part of the implementation project. Auditors can derive guidance form ISO 19011.16 Once the documents and records are in place, internal audits shall be performed according to a plan. Audit findings call for corrective and/or preventive actions as per requirements in clauses 8.5.2 and 8.5.3 of the ISO 9001standard. After one or two internal audits followed by Management Reviews complying with requirements in section 5.6 in the standard, the organisation will be able to present itself for Third Party audit and obtain accredited certificates. 15 ISO 10013:2001. Guidelines for quality management system documentation 16 ISO 19011:2002. Guidelines for quality and/or environmental management systems auditing Attitudes of business establishments towards implementation of ISO 90001: 2008 and its outcome on business performance. A research study by Costa Micaela Martà ­nez, et al., in the Quality Management Journal, 17 had observed that the 2000 version of ISO 9001 became closer to TQM (The statement would as well apply to the 2008 version). The researchers concluded that, merely implementing the new standard will not improve performance unless firms â€Å"adopt the changes seriously and do not merely try to add new lines to their Quality Manual.† This raises a general question whether all those who implement the ISO 9000 systems do it with all seriousness.† An article appeared in Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, 18 concludes that: â€Å"many companies seek an ISO 9000 certificate because their clients expect or their competitors are registering for one.† Nevertheless, by obtaining registration (certification), the management, â€Å"signals its commitment to quality.† The survey by the authors revealed that shareholders of large firms have benefited, while it is not so in the case of small firms. Terziovski, et al., 19 on their study of certified and non-certified Australian and New Zealand firms observed that: â€Å"ISO certification does not significantly impact performance measures like operating performance, customer satisfaction, employee relations and business performance.† They conclude that benefits of the certification will accrue as recognition of the 17 Costa Micaela Martà ­nez, Lorente à ngel Rafael Martà ­nez (2007)ISO 9000:2000: The Key to Quality? An Exploratory Study. 18 Ferreira Eurico J.,et al.(January 2008) Long-run performance following quality management certification. 19 Terziovski M., Samson D., Dow D., 1997. The business value of quality management systems certification: evidence from Australia and New Zealand certified firm to organisations prescribing ISO certification as a minimum requirement for acceptance as viable suppliers. Another finding was reported by Quaze HA, et al, 20 is that implementation of ISO 9000 brings benefits â€Å"such as improvement of product and service quality, efficiency and productivity, customer confidence, and competitive advantage. This view is not shared by another researcher Dalgleish who reports that ISO 9000 certification brings hindrance than help. It is pointed out that the â€Å"certificate leads to a ‘pass/fail mentality, the ISO 9000 certificate hinders quality and efficiency- the very things it is supposed to encourage.† One study by Jang Woan-Yuh, Lin Ching-I.21 in its literature review reveals that organisations that pursue ISO 9000 certification willingly are more likely to report improved organisational performance than those that only obtain certification under customer pressure. The study concludes that external motivation for implementing ISO 9000 does not guarantee positive results. It is the approach of managers and employees that determine the success. The findings of Dick Gavin P.M. et al 22 also points to the same conclusion that: â€Å"although there is some evidence to indicate that quality management system certification has some causal influence on business performance, there is also evidence for the existence of a substantial mechanism whereby better performing firms self-select to adopt certification.† 20 Quaze HA, Hong CW, Meng CT, 2002. Impact of ISO 9000 Certiï ¬ cation on Quality Management Practices: a comparative study. P.53-67 21 Jang Woan-Yuh, Lin Ching-I (2008) Successful ISO 9000 implementation in Taiwan:How can we achieve it, and what does it mean? 22 Dick Gavin P.M., et al (2008) Shedding light on causation between ISO 9001 and improved business performance. Attitude of countries towards ISO 9000. A concise overview highlighting the benefits of implementing ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 given in the ISO website 23 indicates that over a million organisations have implemented these standards in 175 countries all over the world. The ISO Survey 2007 (9. Ibid) gives the statistics of ISO 9001 and 14001 certifications issued from 2000 to 2007. The charts provided in Appendix 1 gives the country wise data of certifications. The data does not lend itself for an objective analysis as the these do not reveal any analytical relativity with the size of the country or the size of its industrial base. It is therefore difficult to analyse these data. It is however seen that the annual growth of certification has been declining from the early years of certification. It is understandable that the growth rate will be higher when a system is newly introduced and the growth stabilises after the initial growth to a lower level. The survey however reveals that it is popular in all the countries in the wor ld. Limitations of the study The study has only scanned accessible secondary data and no attempt was made to verify published research findings through primary data collection. However, the study has relied on multiple sources and therefore should be credible. As such, the study may also be considered balanced in as much as differing opinions have been reported. Conclusions The eight quality management principles that formed the basis of ISO 9001:2008 standards are well conceived and these take the standard to a TQM level. Organisations implementing the standard with the objectives of fully realizing the potentials can expect overall benefits and continual improvements in quality of products, services and customer satisfaction. Organisations implementing the system half heartedly are unlikely to realize the quality related potentials. ISO 9001: 2008 can be implemented by any organisation irrespective of size or type, including servic

Dollarization in Cambodia

Dollarization in Cambodia Dollarization occurs when a country uses US Dollar or other currency instead of or along with local currency. The picture of dollarization can be as follow: using dollar for bank Deposit, paying debt, buying goods and service, measuring national budget. 1 There are three types of dollarization: official, semi-official, and unofficial. Official dollarization occurs when a country use dollar as the legal currency instead of domestic currency. For example, Panama is the dominant official dollarization adopter. It has no domestic currency published at all. The second type is Semi-official dollarization. Some countries in the world use US dollar and domestic currency at the same time; in other word, they use bimonetary systems. This allows people to make deposit in US dollar, do some transaction, but it only act as second role in paying wage, tax, electricity, and daily expense. Adopting this system, the central bank can place its own monetary policy. Cambodia, Lao, and Haiti are the exam ples of semi-dollarized countries. Third, in unofficial dollarization, some countries majority wealth is hold in foreign currency and people can use US dollar substituting domestic currency either legally or illegally. In short, when a country uses other currency beside it own to substitute the three functions of the monetary, it is theoretically that the country has been dollarized formally, semi-formally or informally. 2. World Dollarization Implication There are two main aspects of dollarization. Dollarization is the subject of not only the economic or also of Politic. Economists think that money is only just public goods which consist of three functions: means of exchange, store value and unit of account and its purpose is only to ease the economic transaction. Dollarization is the symbol of the US power influence country money. The US aid for the reconstruction of Western Europe after the World War II and many other countries, the role of US in world stage became more important. Then after the abolishment of Gold Standard in 1971, the US dollar also became the main currency in the world. Because of shock of financial crisis, some countries adopt dollar US to reduce the risk and create stability. For, those countries adopting dollarization is only another term for fixed exchange rate compared to US dollar without much effort2. Comparing to developing country currency, it is more reliable, valuable and profitable in doing trade, st oring value, and making transaction. However, some countries use other currency with similar quality such as Germany mark, Japanese yen and now Euro in Europe. Beside economic value, money contains purchasing power which is the heart of politic. The power has distributed to the creator, the exchanger, and especially the controller. Thus, distribution of money does not only create hierarchy of people but it also creates hierarchy in the world.3 However, for some other countries dollarization is the heart of political interest. For instance, using US dollar in Latin America implies its dependence on US and also shows its inferior. East Timor adopt US dollar as its official currency to prevent Indonesian influence. In short, dollarization can be characterize into both economic and politics. Through both means the dollarization is becoming new influence of US in the world. 3. Dollarization in Cambodia Dollarization According to IMF the proportion of Dollar in economic circulation is 90% which is indifferent for a decade ago. In an article dollarization in Cambodia, and policy options on the way forward, Menon (1998) concluded that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦dollarization is not the problem, but is merely symptom. The problem (or the cause) is a lack of confidence in the riel, whilst the symptom (or the effect) is the use of another currency such as the US dollar.4 Dollarization in Cambodia is the result of both past and present economic and politic status. Dollarization in Cambodia is the direct legacy of the destruction of economic and financial Institutions after the 1970s, economic mismanagement in the 1980s, and the large inflows of US Dollars during the UNTAC period in the early 1990s5.Today, in Cambodia the US dollar still serves all three functions of money: it is widely used as a medium of exchange, store of wealth, and unit of account. The fact that dollarization is not the real problem but it is the lack confident in riel can be rooted as far as the Khmer Rouge Regime. In 1975 the revolution of Khmer Rouge took over the Cambodia politic and economy. influenced by the Marxism, to make Cambodia a communist country the Pol Pot abolish riel currency as well as stop the national bank operation and thus hope to fill the gap of the rich and the poor. Cambodian people lived in hardship without any personal business activity, any mean of store value or exchange, on private ownership. Fortunately, in 1979 the population was saved; however, this country returned to the state of traditional economy using barter system. Then, no t until 1980 did riel currency appear again. Experiencing shock in 1975 when their saving money became scraps in only days, Cambodian people later preferred to use other means such as gold, silver, jewelry for exchange. Most people used riel currency for only small transaction and not over 50$ saving. When the dollar was introduced again in 1990s, it is generally accepted along with previous gold and silver money. As much 1.7 as US million dollars has poured in Cambodia through UN peace keeping activity, the UNTAC6. This situation paved the ways of Cambodian economy depend on the stronger money US dollar and Cambodia was easily the most highly dollarized country in Asia, and one of the highest in the world The share of dollars in currency Circulation is highest in Cambodia, estimated at about 90 percent. Nowadays Dollar still plays major role in business transaction, and the major deposit in bank. The existence of dollarization in Cambodia is also expected to last. Another reason fo r Cambodia in accepting dollarization is just a pressure of its country as a developing economy. Even though Cambodia has done three decade or reconstructing the economy, reducing political and economic uncertainty, there are more actions to be done to get out of dollarization. While growth and political uncertainty greatly has been reduced, Cambodia remains a low income country with significant inequality and poverty, and some degree of political uncertainty remains. For example, political turmoil in 1997 combined with Asian financial crisis would have been more even more threatening to Cambodia if it had not been dollarized. 4. Conclusion As many states have problem in both economic and politic stability and weak monetary system people will consider using another currency which is more stable and valuable in most situation. In the serious case some countries do not have own currency at all but US dollar. As the US has strong monetary regime its currency impress those developing states to use US dollar; therefore, US may somewhat influence those state in both economic and politic. Some states may be dollarized in order to create financial stability; however, they are unsure what can US do with dollarization for politics. Cambodia is not the exception. Since 1970s and had been attracted to new currency US dollar in since 1990s. Until now, the degree of dollarization has changed only a little. Dollarization was injected so gradually that people get accustomed to it despite the government effort to de-dollarize in the last decade. Cambodia economic and politic problems still fuel dollarization existence. Next issue is to discuss the advantage and disadvantage in Cambodia. MC2: Situation of Dollarization in Cambodia Today and Its Cost and Benefit After the two decade of United Nation Transnational Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) operated peace keeping activity and introduce dollarization in Cambodia, with high economic performance with average two digits GDP growth and considerable political stability Cambodia should have come out of dollarization already. However, Cambodias economy is still highly and increasingly dollarized which urge the government to critically consider whether to de-dollarize by comparing its cost and benefit. The status of Cambodia dollarization today is not far different from the 1990s1. The dollar still serves three functions in this economy: making transaction, storing value and being used as unit of account. The cash dollar in circulation in Cambodia is 90% of all value of transaction which is similar as a decade ago. Dollar has been widely use for private sector wage payment, medium of international trade and also purchase large value products. Moreover, dollars also dominate the currency deposit as storing value instrument in Cambodia. According to the National Bank, the foreign currency deposit in broad money (M2) is accounted for 75% in 2006 increasing from 54% in 1998. Furthermore, 97% of bank deposit is in term of dollar. The recent increase in dollarization is the result of two main points the higher economic growth and recent political stability has contribute to more dollarization. When the investor think Cambodia is a good place to invest they will inject more dollar investm ent. In addition, the open trade economy also allows Cambodia to do more trade with other countries using dollar as medium of international trade exchange. Long before this happen the issue of dollarization has been discussed on cost and benefit but at this time it is even more critical to figure out that the cost of dollarization is more than benefit in Cambodia2. The benefit of dollarization in Cambodia can be encouraging saving, preventing capital flight, providing low risk of currency and exchange rate devaluation. First, the dollarization increasing saving when there is a better currency that is more reliable, therefore, people will tend to save in the bank in dollar to increase their wealth as well as lubricate the economy. Second, this also prevent hot money go out Cambodia in a short time of return from investment because investor still deposit money in local bank and transfer to their homeland at any time when there is high portion of dollar deposit in the bank. Last but not least, dollarization provides security from the risk of currency devaluation and exchange rate depreciation. When the local money face inflation or depreci ation the dollar holder will not worry about the value of asset they hold in dollar. On the other hand, those benefits are little comparing to cost of dollarization. First of all, riel is the national symbol of states sovereignty so using dollar is really affect sovereignty and national identity. Second, When Cambodia use dollar as dominate to riel currency, the national symbol has been eroded because the people do not trust their own government. Instead of get easily affected by local inflation, the dollar holder get easily affect by dollar instability especially in recent years. Thus, it means that Cambodia is somewhat dependence on the US federal monetary policy. Finally, dollarization make local monetary policy less effective, in other word, the central bank cannot use its own currency to fully stabilize price and economy. When government want to print more money it will not increase much in the economy because most of transaction done by dollar and the government also cannot co ntrol the interest rate since the most deposit is in dollar not riel. Government also cannot get inflation tax (print money to finance short term deficit but let go the inflation) to finance the government budget especially in hard time.3 Being unable to use inflation tax or seignior age to support emergency needs the government of Cambodia is estimate to loss seignior age to be $682 million at the end of 2004, with an additional $61 million lost annually. and especially in the case of paying the military, the Barry Eichengreen (1994): Money can be printed to pay soldiers, to purchase materiel, and to underwrite the other costs of a war of national defense without having to wait for tax returns to be filed or for a foreign loan to be extended. As the state sovereignty and being able to use own policy is very important the cost burden by dollarization above have already exceed the benefit. Thus it is time for Cambodian government to get more effort in de-dollarized campaigned despite the problem of lack of both commitment and capacity. In short, even though the economy and politic of Cambodia has improved the dollarization has not been eliminated but it increases because of the more free market mechanism. However, dollarization has impose more cost such as hindering Cambodia from using its own monetary policy, eroding national sovereignty and being not able to finance government budget deficit which is far more significant that the benefit such as creating price stability, encouraging save and discouraging capital flight. This is the high time for Cambodia government to respond to those issues. Cambodia cannot stay aside from dollarization as it shows the higher level. The Cambodia government has to show its commitment and strengthen capacity to combated dol larization either locally or regionally. MC#3: Policy Option for De-dollarization in Cambodia The government of Cambodia has realized that the current situation of dollarization in Cambodia has higher cost than benefit. The cost is that dollarization has weakened domestic monetary policy capacity to manipulate the financial and monetary system while the benefit has gone to price stability and trade and investment integration. The Cambodian government has; therefore, allowed the side effect of US federal policy to influence its economy for a long time either good or bad. Thus, it is high time for Cambodia to strengthen de-dollarization. There are two main procedures in de-dollarization which are domestic policy and regional policy. However, this paper will cover only the possibility of policy option done by the Government of Cambodia alone. The suggested policies to de-dollarized Cambodia economy are full dollarization, currency board agreement, and continue Interim policy reform. However, the latest seems most preferable. The first choice of Cambodia is to move forward to full dollarization following the precedential example in Latin American economy especially Panama. Adopting this policy, Cambodia has a great save in transaction cost, is easy to integrate itself in the regional and global economy by trade and capital flow and also maintain high price stability. However, full dollarization seems not the right choice for Cambodia. Since Cambodian economy does not closely related to US and thus it does not allow Cambodia to keep track with US economy easily. Moreover, giving up riel currency implies scarifying more seigniorage benefit to US and has no more ability to use own monetary policy as the lender of last resort of domestic commercial bank. Moreover, the government of Cambodia hasnt showed any commitment to turn to keep dollar as legal tender. The Minister of Ministry of Economic and Finance, Mr. Keat Chhun at the Launching Cambodian Economic Forum in 2006 said However, it should be seen that the Royal Government is now implementing de-dollarization. Our economy must be based on national currency, which should be based on a basket of foreign currencies and consistent with the integration of our economy into regional and world economy. It is not likely that Cambodia take a reverse policy from its commitment. Second policy is to create currency board agreement in Cambodia. A currency board is a monetary authority, unlike central bank, issue domestic currency that is always convertible to foreign currency at a fixed exchange rate on the basis of 100%. This means that if 1$ = 4000 riel, the currency board needs 10$ reserve to issue 40000 riel. The currency board makes profit by gaining interest from its foreign reserve by the expense of cost in circulating local currency. The advantage of CBA is the gaining of seigniorage benefit over the dollarization that makes country loss in that. Although Currency board seems a good choice but it need too much effort from Cambodia and also has side effects. There is an estimated that riel is 10% of the currency of circulation and the official reserve is triple of this which is equal to 30%. Thus, it means that Cambodia need to triple the reserve to collect all dollars in circulation. Therefore, currency board may lead to a mass government debt. Is there any other ways that Cambodia can get more official reserve? Finally, the last alternative for de-dollarization is to use interim policy. Interim policy is to set objective of de-dollarization in longer term and accelerate reform. In this approach, the government of Cambodia should left the monetary system as they are on the one hand; and increase macroeconomic stability which increase riel confident and demand as well as restore riel-friendly environment on the other hand. First of all, National Bank of Cambodia plays an important role in this policy. NBC is the last resort of loan of commercial bank, so NBC provide riel as a mean to refinance. Then Cambodia government should promote the use of riel currency as a mean of exchange with security and low cost. Last, the NBC can use Treasury bill to attract the riel financial market by providing higher interest than dollars saving. Beside the role of the bank, the tax policy reform is also taken into account. Demand of riel can be raised when there is obligation to pay all kind of tax in riel. Thus, when there is more tax collection in riel implies more demand in riel. Besides, the adaptations of existing institution that allow ease the dollarization is important. For example, the minimum wage law in Cambodia is indentify is dollar not riel and the most international organization operated in Cambodia preferred to pay salary in dollar only while in other country the government required the international organization to pay 30%-40% in local currency. Moreover, there are also surplus demands of riel in microfinance that cannot be fulfilled. it is estimated that microfinance industry demand Riel 120 billion in 2008, but the supply is not enough. Thus, it is important to resolve the dollarization-friendly-condition above by remove any status serve for dollarization although there is a certain portion in dollar paying in wage and salary and increase supply of riel in microfinance industry. One can criticized that Cambodian government has done a lot in reform for macroeconomic stability but the result is still high dollarization in today economy. Cambodia has enjoyed high growth, average two digit growth in last five year, despite the distraction from the global financial crisis in 2008, yet the there still the same dollarization. In addition, to restore attract demand in riel as a secure and low transaction cost currency is not good because the commercial bank has promote it by giving higher interest rate than dollar deposit already. The problem is not focus on what have Cambodian has done, instead it is important to know what else needed to achieve long-term goal of de-dollarization. Moreover, gradually de-dollarization process can ease the economy adaption. As result, when the Cambodia reach the macroeconomic stability the authority can take advantage of strong financial system to increase confident in riel and thus to de-dollarized. In conclusion, Dollarization in Cambodia is not the matter that easily to settle because there a high link between citizen who prefer dollarization as the result of being not confident in riel and weak financial institution and a high loss in the government who is the coordinator between those two. Among the suggested policy in de-dollarization which are full dollarization, currency board agreement and interim policy, the last choice is likely the best option for Cambodia because it respresent the appropriate capacity ot the states as well as allowed people to increase confident and demand in riel considerable. However, the previouse effort in this policy is not enough so Cambodia need a higher commitment and capacity in this policy. On the other hand, domestic policy alone may not enough to deal with the dollarization which is the result from capital and trade integration. Therefore, regional cooperation combating dollarization can be the future choice for cambodia. MC4: Subregional Cooperation in Dedollarization. Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam have shared common characteristic as the newly emergence economy. Firstly, the three countries or so called CLV countries have transform from central planned economy to free and open market economy during 1980s and 1990s. Because of the experience of price instability, fragile monetary and exchange rate policy and the underdeveloped or non existence of financial market make all countries similarly tend to use Dollar alongside the local currency despite the different level of dollarization. Although dollarization has contribute to price exchange rate stability, it is not the good choice for them in longà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ term because the government has lost much seigniorage, benefit and also the role of last resort of lender of central bank. CLV has tried their own method to deà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ dollarize to cope with shortà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ coming problems by their own reform so as to gain currency confident and also improving financial institution. Those policies seem to need much effort and time and CLV to achieve alone, therefore there is also another choice of subà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ regional cooperation among CLV countries such as exchange rate regime and single currency area. For CLV cooperation in monetary and exchange rate policy to combat both depolarization and monetary system sustainability which includes price stability, financial stability and exchange rate stability, CLV have to create cooperation environment as a precondition. First, they have to create a network of policy makers, economist elites, officials, and researcher from all level of government and financial institution to take close surveillance on CLV economic performance and discuss the possibility of new policy. Moreover, the networks should make a regular meeting information exchange, checking progress and also make consultant the possible area in economic integration in the region. Secondly, CLV countries should create strong connection of capital market among them. There are two possible alternatives for this. The Viet Nam should allow the Cambodian and Laos company to list it stock market or the CLV can create common bond market of CLV subà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ region. To develop capital market in CLV countries they also need to make a joint regulation and supervisory to ensure transparency to investors and they need to reduce foreign exchange restriction among the three countries to reduce exchange rate risk among investor too. After achieving the above precondition in monetary and exchange cooperation above, CLV have two choices which are exchange rate cooperation and monetary cooperation to multilaterally combat dollarization. First of all, consider the possible of future exchange regime in ASEAN+3 in the East Asian economic community, the CLV exchange rate cooperation can be pilot project of the bigger picture of cooperation. CLV countries should consider the joint peg of currency to Dollar or currency basket of currency famously Dollar, Euro and yen while the weight of currency depends on the trilateral discussion. This common peg to Dollar is a good choice for CLV countries because of several reasons despite some difficulties. First, the stable exchange rate to Dollar has showed the strength of currency against outside fluctuation thus gain credibility of currency. Second, CLV already adopt restricted fluctuation of currency against Dollar and those main trading partner, China also already peg to Dollar. By doing this the three countries will have less transaction cost in changing their currency to Dollar when they are doing trade and at the same time their currency will get confident from people since it is stable with Dollar. On the other hand, when CLV peg to the basket of currency including Dollar, Euro and Yen, the CLV country can reduce risk when there is currency shocked in US. Instead of rely solely on exchange rate stability with Dollar, CLV reduce the risk by depend on two more major economies, Europe and Japan. There is no correct proportion of the three currencies in the currency basket, yet it depends on the economic relation of CLV to the Gà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ 3 (US, Europe and Japan) and also their own negotiation. Besides, CLV can move further to subà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ regional currency board which ensures the stronger peg to foreign currency thus they get more seigniorage benefit. However, they need much more effort to achieve this. First, they have to create a stronger cooperation in coordinating currency policy. Second, they need more foreign reserve to run currency board and it needs high legal endorsement to get people use local currency. In addition to cooperation in Exchange rate regime, it is also important that CLV cooped to create monetary regime. The CLV common currency is a long term goal they require many effort from CLV to improve the credibility among public of currency as well as effective institution to handle the transitional change of currency and strong political will of CLV leaders. Besides, the CLV currency area can be established only after the Asian Currency Unit (ACI)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  which is similar to European Currency Unite, has been created in ASEAN+3. When there is common peg to ACI in ASEAN+3 economy, the CLV will change to peg ACI and they can create their own subà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ regional common currency in lower level to increase their voice in ASEAN cooperation, in addition to the benefit for Exchange rate regime. However, some scholar suggests this option is difficult to achieve at least in short and medium term because there are many political sensitive issue to overcome, weak institution, and flexibility of people. In summary, in order to cooperate with each other so as to deà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ dollarize their economy CLV countries has to two choices of Exchange rate regime and single currency. Those policies are only achievable when CLV countries have strong foundation of cooperation in critical are such economic consolation and information sharing, joint assessment and so on. They can more benefit from this cooperation rather than taking action individually however it is only longà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ term goal for them. In prospect there is still possibility to get out dollarization when CLV are determined enough in cooperation. MC#5: Dollarization and Implication of Financial Architecture Reform Cambodia among CLV is solely dollarized countries in the world which face the problems. Dollarization is the common problem in developing countries such as Latin America also. Thus the case of dollarization in Cambodia can also reflect the situation of the change of financial architecture that affect the financial and monetary system in the world. Dollarization is the symptom of weak ability of domestic financial structure, historical price in stability and political problems urges people to use foreign currency. While the government the seigniorage benefit and role of last resort of lender the people enjoy the stability of money in deposit as well as trade and investment. Rooted from the globalization there are three main debates in global financial system: Does dollarization good for developing country? Should states liberalize people choice in using currency they like or impose people to choose national fiat money? Should IMF play important role in the world exchange rate stability? Does dollarization good for developing country? Dollarization can give price and exchange rate stability in low cost in most emergence market economy. Hanke recommend developing countries to use dollarization in case that the states do not have strong monetary and fiscal policy to tighten currency value in long term should use dollarization as monetary institution. The above idea is not raised by him alone some scholar also propose choice of dollarization because of several reasons. First, considering the financial and dept crisis during 1980s and 1990s in much part of the world and thus leads to increase of high inflation, currency devaluation and mass capital outflow by foreign investors. When developing country dollarization they can stabilize the currency, exchange rate. When those countries use a high confident and good quality currency like dollar in economy is no possibility of a sharp depreciation, and sudden capital outflows because of investor unconfident is also omitted. Second, dollarization can highly reduce transaction cost and integrate developing economy closer to US. Thirdly, the stability of dollar in the economy as currency in developing countries will encourage people to save more and foreigner to invest more. However, dollarization is costly. Government of developing countries need to scarify seigniorage benefit in dollarized economy and the Central bank losses its role of lender of last resort to the commercial bank in case there is liquidity problems. Moreover, the states will lose its sovereignty in term of monetary policy and exchange rate policy. Thus, it is a critical decision to whether or not to dollarize in developing countries because they have to compare the benefit of dollarization the cost to bear it as well as balancing the internal risk with external risk. Should states liberalize people choice in using currency they like or impose people to choose national fiat money? According to Laurence H. Meyer, a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System when there is more global financial integration the government should increase role in market discipline, regulation and also supervision in money and also exchange rebate. The states should improve the international capital standard, market discipline. The state has monopolized the authorization on Money discipline by introduces national currency to show the selfà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ help system in term of currency and also gains seigniorage benefit. However, Randal Krozner, an economist at the University of Chicagos Graduate, rejects the role of government in currency circulating. He claim that private regulation found in private actors such as clearing house, credit rating agency, trader, capitalist investor, and others has provided stability and innovation because they work closely to financial and currency market. He advises that the government should reduce the intervention in the financial and monetary system and let the dynamic private sector to regulate the system. In short, while some scholar support government role in regulation the currency market, some ot