Monday, September 30, 2019
A. Gain Attention The most famous quote that people associate with art is Ã¢â¬Å"A picture paints a thousand wordsÃ¢â¬ . Although this is a quote widely known, I would say that the quote Ã¢â¬Å"Painting is a blind man's profession. He paints not what he sees, but what he feels, what he tells himself about what he has seenÃ¢â¬ accurately describes the essence of art. B. Arouse Interest Art is an outlet for self-expression and creativity. Through the use of paintings many artists have created works that have become known throughout the entire world. And why are these paintings so famous? visual aid: Andy Warhol, American Gothic, Guernica, The Persistence of Memory, The Last Supper, The Scream) * Complexity * Controversy C. Thesis Statement. Without a doubt, art is a form of communication that allows one to express what they cannot accomplish through the use of words. D. Establish Qualifications Through the art history course that I took here at Seneca Valley and the extensive rese arch that I have done I have discovered many ways through which art can communicate a message that the artist wants to make public.E. Forecast Organization and Development There is a form of communication called aesthetic communication and this is what the messages given through the form of art are. They are creative representations of an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, perspective, views, and values through the use of various symbols, colors, and methods. Through these uses of art, the artist creates meaningful works, whose purpose is to invoke a response from the audience. There are hundreds of examples of paintings that have had huge effects on society.There are paintings which have captured history and the values during a certain time and there are paintings that have made a social commentary on the time of creation. BODY A. Through the use of symbols, many paintings convey messages that might mean different things for different people. Visual aid: the persistence of time and Andy Warhol Ã¢â¬â¢s CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s soup. What are these artists trying to say? Symbolism of melting clocks, ants, and the fading painting: Andy WarholÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolism of the soup cans: humor, poking fun at the traditional painting of the fruit bowl, repetition.One might not immediately derive this from looking at the painting. Some might even criticize it because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the message. All these things might mean something different to someone from a different culture. What you are exposed to ultimately influences your thoughts and perceptions on a subject and artists do count for this. They know that there are differences in the way that people see their paintings. They embrace this. Everything is not always black and white in the world of art.Although many art historians analyze paintings for years and years, sometimes in some cases, we may never know the entirety of the message that the artist wanted to convey through the painting. These two paintings attempt to te ll a story through the use of these symbols B. Paintings have also become a way to capture history in the making. They were used before photographs and now, some paintings are the only things we have to rely on for knowledge about certain ancient cultures. Ã¢â¬Å"It is said that art is a way of communicating that which is within to those who are on the outside. The artists who capture these moments in history, obviously found it necessary that they paint it. They want to show the world an event, a person, or a place that has extreme significance to them. Take for example, Pablo PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s Guernica. This painting was a response to the devastating events which took place in Guernica during the Spanish Civil War. The painting shows severed head, mutilated animals and bodies, and overall suffering. Through this painting Picasso made a comment on how war and fighting ultimately leads to suffering of innocent beings.This painting clearly shows his anti-war views and his promotion of peace. Francisco De GoyaÃ¢â¬â¢s painting: Tres De Mayo Shows French soldiers being executed for defending Madrid. The way that it is portrayed in the painting, you can obviously tell what Goya thought about this event. He felt the need for these martyrs to be remembered. He valued their lives and wanted justice for what the French had done. This is also a way to communicate what took place on that day and through these horrible images, the painting can be interpreted as a call to arms, to defend Spain.Going back to symbolism, the stance of the man in white says a lot about GoyaÃ¢â¬â¢s view. He has a Christ like stance in the painting, which shows that Goya believes that he is a martyr. He is someone sacrificing himself for his people. C. Paintings are also used to make social commentary on beliefs or issues that we face in the world. One of the most famous paintings that reflects a time in history is American Gothic. This painting has been taken to be a satire of the MidWestern life and way of thinking during the time that Grant Wood painted it.This painting is widely used to show current social issues and the people in the painting are usually replaced with what the current culture believes is the standard. In those times this painting reflected the simpler life, but the meaning is unknown. Many believe that he was being satirical, poking fun at the innocence of the Western life and the simplicity. The title also seems to be satirical as well, Ã¢â¬Å"American GothicÃ¢â¬ . The Gothic movement was most certainly not American and he might be making fun by comparing adding this gothic architecture to the surrounding all American scene in the painting.Andy WarholÃ¢â¬â¢s The Last Supper Series: One painting in particular features an outline of the last supper painting and brand names plastered all over the painting. This is a comment on our society today and our obsession with materialistic things, comparing it to the times of the last supper makes our obs ession seem even more dramatic. The painting is also a comment on the excessive advertisements in our society today. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/keywords/painting. html
Sunday, September 29, 2019
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Ã¢â¬â ROLE OF BOARD OF DIRECTORS People often question whether corporate boards matter because their day-today impact is difficult to observe. But, when things go wrong, they can become the center of attention. Certainly this was true of the Enron, Worldcom, and Parmalat scandals. The directors of Enron and Worldcom, in particular, were held liable for the fraud that occurred: Enron directors had to pay $168 million to investor plaintiffs, of which $13 million was out of pocket (not covered by insurance); and Worldcom directors had to pay $36 million, of which $18 million was out of pocket.As a consequence of these scandals and ongoing concerns about corporate governance, boards have been at the center of the policy debate concerning governance reform and the focus of considerable academic research. Because of this renewed interest in boardsmuch of the research on boards ultimately touches on the question Ã¢â¬Å"what is the role of the board? Ã¢â¬ Possible answers range from boardsÃ¢â¬â¢ being simply legal necessities, something akin to the wearing of wigs in English courts, to their playing an active part in the overall management and control of the corporation.No doubt the truth lies somewhere between these extremes; indeed, there are probably multiple truths when this question is asked of different firms, in different countries, or in different periods. So what is a Board of Director (BoD) and what do Directors actually do? Ã¢â¬Å"A Board of Directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company or organization. Other names include board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, and board of visitors.It is often simply referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëthe boardÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ . A board's activities are determined by the powers, duties, and responsibilities delegated to it or conferred on it by an authority outside itself. These matters are typically detailed in the cou ntryÃ¢â¬â¢s company law, organization's bylaws and/or the Article of Association (AoA). The bylaws commonly also specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and when they are to meet. To better understand corporate boards, one should begin with the question of what do directors doÃ¢â¬â¢? Over the years there has been several indepth studies conducted and research literature published by some of the most brilliant academics only to answer this very question e. g. Mace, 1971, Whisler, 1984, Lorsch and MacIver, 1989, Demb and Neubauer, 1992, and Bowen, 1994 and their conclusions are presented breifly: The principal conclusions of Mace were that Ã¢â¬Å"directors serve as a source of advice and counsel, serve as some sort of discipline, and act in crisis situationsÃ¢â¬ .The nature of their Ã¢â¬Å"advice and counselÃ¢â¬ is unclear but Mace suggests that a board serves largely as a sounding board for the CEO and top management, occasionally providing exp ertise when a firm faces an issue about which one or more board members are expert. Yet Demb and NeubauerÃ¢â¬â¢s survey results find that approximately two-thirds of directors agreed that Ã¢â¬Å"setting the strategic direction of the companyÃ¢â¬ was one of the jobs they did. 80% of the directors also agreed that they were Ã¢â¬Å"involved in setting strategy for the companyÃ¢â¬ . 5% of respondents to another of Demb and NeubauerÃ¢â¬â¢s questionnaires report that they Ã¢â¬Å"set strategy, corporate policies, overall direction, mission, visionÃ¢â¬ . Indeed far more respondents agreed with that description of their job than agreed with the statements that their job entailed Ã¢â¬Å"oversee[ing], monitor[ing] top management, CEOÃ¢â¬ (45%); Ã¢â¬Å"succession, hiring/firing CEO and top managementÃ¢â¬ (26%); or serving as a Ã¢â¬Å"watchdog for shareholders, dividendsÃ¢â¬ (23%). According to Epstein and Roy (2006), a high performance board must achieve three core objective s; in other words Epstein and Roy nail the core responsibilities of the board: . Provide superior strategic guidance to ensure the company's growth and prosperity by Setting of Strategy: 2. Ensure accountability of the company to its stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, regulators and community; 3. Ensure that a highly qualified executive team is managing the company by The Hiring, Firing and Assessment of Management. Apart from what has been stated above one very significant and active role played by the board is in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"the hiring, firing, and assessment of managementÃ¢â¬ .This is one role that is typically ascribed to directors is control of the process by which top executives are hired, promoted, assessed, and, if necessary, dismissed. Assessment can be seen as having two components, one is monitoring of what top management does and the other is determining the intrinsic ability of top management. The monitoring of managerial action s can, in part, be seen as part of a boardÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation to be vigilant against managerial malfeasance. It is essential that the role, duties and responsibilities of directors are clearly defined.The Combined Code (2006) states that Ã¢â¬Å"the boardÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to provide entrepreneurial leadership of the company within a framework of prudent and effective controls which enables risk to be assessed and managedÃ¢â¬ . According to UK Law, the directors should act in good faith in the interest of the company, and exercise care and skill in carrying out their duties. The Company Law Reform Bill (2005) defines, in section 154-161, the directorsÃ¢â¬â¢ duties as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to act within powers, that is, to act in accordance with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution and only exercise powers for the purpose for which they are conferred; a duty to promote the success of the company, so a director must act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to exercise independent judgment; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to avoid conflicts of interest; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty not to accept benefits from third party Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to declare an interest on proposed transactions or arrangements. But that does not quite answer our cardinal question as to Ã¢â¬Ëhow the role the board plays is related to the overall corporate governance of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢.Nevertheless one thing is certain thus far is that the BoD lead and control a company and hence an effective board is fundamental to the success of the company. The board is the link between managers and the investors, and is essential to good corporate governance and investor relations. Since corporate governance represents the value framework, the ethical framework and the moral framework under which business decisions are taken; it therefore calls f or three factors: 1. Transparency in decision-making; 2. Accountability which follows from transparency because responsibilities could be fixed easily for actions taken or not taken, and; . The accountability is for the safeguarding the interests of the stakeholders and the investors in the organization. Decisions relating to board composition and structure will be of fundamental importance in determining whether, and to what extent, the board is effective and successful in achieving these objectives. A board will typically be composed of a Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, Executive Directors, Non- Executive Director, Independent Director, Company Secretary and then there are committees made from among the board for specific purposes with a view to increased corporate governance and hence accountability.It is important that the board has a balanced composition both in terms of executive and non executive directors and also in terms of experience, qualities and skills that individu als bring to the table. The Institute of Directors (IoD) has published some useful guidance in this area in 2006 which is shared below: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consider the ratio and number of executive and non executive directors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consider the energy, experience, knowledge, skill and personal attributes of current and prospective directors in relation to the future needs of the board as a whole, and develop specifications and processes for new appointments, as necessary. Consider the cohesion, dynamic tension and diversity of the board and its leadership by the chairman. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make and review succession plans for directors and the company secretary. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where necessary, remove incompetent or unsuitable directors of the company secretary, taking relevant legal, contractual, ethical and commercial matter into account. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Agree proper procedures for electing a chairman and appointing the managing director and other directors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify potential candidates of the board, make selection and agree terms of appointment and remuneration.New appointments should be agreed by every board member. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provide new board members with a comprehensive induction to board process, and policies, inclusion to the company and to their new role. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monitor and appraise each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, behavior, knowledge, effectiveness and values rigorously and regularly. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify development needs and training opportunities for existing and potential directors and the company secretary. Roles of the board members 1. Chief Executive Officer and ChairmanThe CEO has the executive responsibility for running of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business; on the other hand, the Chairman has responsibility for the running of the board. The two roles should not therefore be combined and carried out by one person Conclusions Corporate governance, and in particular the role of boards of directors, has been the topic of much attention lately. Although this attention is par ticularly topical due to well-publicized governance failures and subsequent regulatory changes, corporate governance is an area of longstanding interest in economics (dating back to at least Adam Smith, 1776).Because of corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ enormous share of economic activity in modern economies, the extent to which corporations deviate from value-maximization is extremely important. Consequently, corporate governance and the role of boards of directors is an issue of fundamental importance in economics. Understanding the role of boards is vital both for our understanding of corporate behavior and with respect to setting policy to regulate corporate activities.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Analysis of Ti Tonic Submitted by : Anubhav Singh Ã Ã Ã INTRODUCTION Ti-Tonics are propelled mixes of characteristic tea concentrates, fiber and plant polyphenols, intended to extinguish your thirst and sustain your body. Polyphenols are natureÃ¢â¬â¢s most intense cancer prevention agents and protectants. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s one of its kind products in the world in which the ingredients come from the wine making industry and fuse them to the beverage. Ti Tonic is injected with New Zealand grape seed that is normally removed utilizing our 100% Aqua PureÃ ® prepare that utilizations just water to extricate the bioactives from these organic prfoduct. This implies the bioactives are separated in their regular shape and not harmed by solvents, or brutal concoction extraction strategies. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more no substance or dissolvable buildups are in the last item. Solidify drying of the last item guarantees the movement of the concentrates is kept up and not pulverized.(WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s special, t i-tonics.com) Currently major export market is Australia. Ti Tonics won award of Best Tea Beverage by NZJBA which is New Zealand Juice and Beverage Association. Products offered by Ti Tonics are : Pomegranate Super Tea Blueberry Super Tea Passion Super Tea Mango Super Tea Nectarine Super Tea My market analysis will be conducted in India which is second Largest in terms of population after China. Market Research Analysis Tool I will be using PESTEL for this market research as PESTLE investigation is a market examination apparatus that considers outside variables that can influence a business. It gives a bird eye viewpoint of the whole environment from an extensive variety of focuses that one needs to check and screen while pondering on a particular idea/plan. PESTLE is the abbreviation which, when expanded stands for: P Ã¢â¬â Political E Ã¢â¬â Economical S Ã¢â¬â Social T Ã¢â¬â Technological L Ã¢â¬â Legal E Ã¢â¬â Environmental POLITIC AL : India Ã¢â¬â Vote based system is the point of convergence of the Indian political framework, however is frequently compelled by social strains because of religious, position and semantic differences. India is the biggest vote based country on the planet and standards of popular government are profoundly dug in the Indian political framework. Indian assorted qualities is reflected in the elected political structure of government, where power is shared amongst states and the inside. Foreign Policy: After a time of unmistakable comrade/communist predisposition, India has step by step warmed up to Western Europe, the US and numerous other outside nations. India is likewise taking a shot at unhindered commerce assentions (FTA) with Canada and the EU to change exchange encourage and fortify its two-sided associations with the two districts. New Zealand- New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s political framework has a relative representation framework that gives rise to chance to both the gend er; male and females. The nation has high scores in the World Bank administration pointers for 2014, which shows a solid democratic set-up and political security in the nation. The nation is additionally executing the New Zealand Inc. technique, which plans to enhance the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s outer export and import through strong foreign relations. The technique is relied upon to cover India, China, ASEAN, Australia and the Gulf Cooperation Chamber (MarketLine,2015) OBSERVATION: India is a political stable country; a relentless government does not mull over authoritative issues to effect business. On the other hand possibly it makes decisions and controls that pads relationship from political unbalanced attributes. There wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be any political danger in introduce this new healthy organic tea to Indian markets. ECONOMICAL FACTORS : INDIA Ã¢â¬â Second largest workforce in the world India is home to the second biggest workforce, which is relied upon to increment altoge ther throughout the following four decades. This gives India a critical edge over contenders, for example, China. According to Survey, Ã¢â¬Å"India a haven of stability amidst gloomy global economic landscape (Economic Times,2016) Global Workforce (millions),2014-19 Size of workforce in 2014 Size of workforce in 2019 Ã Ã China 706.8 683.9 India 437.4 472.2 United States 136.0 140.7 Brazil 94.3 98.7 Russian Federation 66.2 66.7 Source Ã¢â¬â Market Line
Friday, September 27, 2019
Trading System - Research Paper Example Similarly the fund would not wait for the market to bottom out before taking a decision on going long and that it would go long once market moves down somewhere between the peak and the bottom. Either strategies would imply that the fund is not looking for excessive and speculative gains; nevertheless it does maintain inherent profit booking targets. The trading system explained below is based on trading rules that were tested for profits results based on this risk philosophy. Financial theory, taught in finance textbooks the globe over, normally exposes a student of finance to the concepts like the efficient market hypothesis and the economically rational individual. Bubbles and crashes seem to defy these two seminal concepts with an awkwardness equivalent to the awkwardness one would attach to those things on earth that defy gravity. Nevertheless such extreme stock market movements are a reality. Bubbles make investing decisions arduous as stock prices tend to deviate by substantial margins from their fundamental valuations. Investors relying on past company results and technical analysis are equally defeated in such situations as is the EMH.In fact, investors always act on the basis that they have an applicable construct to explain stock price movements and tend to input all available information collected under such constructs in their investment decisions (Poole 2000). Finance research has also held varying opinions on this issue. For instance, Bierm ann (1995) supports the idea that market prices are determined from backward looking investors than by those that indulge in predictions of all sorts. Others have, for example elaborated on the use of price to earnings ratios to determine excess market valuations. Some technical work has set to rest in a convincing manner the phenomenon of bubbles and bursts. For instance, Graham (1973) describes in details why markets fluctuate and how to deal with the violent fluctuations .Graham discusses five basic points to read into cross sectional view of market bubbles. Most of these points concern factors like growth and earnings and their impact on price movements and price levels. Graham (1973), in fact, provides a much better viewpoint on gauging market bubbles through an adaptive expectations model.The Efficient Markets Hypothesis (EMH) states that current prices always 'fully reflect' available information, so that the only reason prices change between time t and time t+1 is the arriva l of new information. The EMH requires that only two necessary conditions be met. First, the market must be aware of all available information .The type of information available is determined by the strength of the EMH being tested. In a Weak Form EMH, current prices entirely reflect all that can be known from the study of historical prices and trading volumes. If the Weak Form is valid, technical analysis becomes ineffective. Any information contained in past prices has been analyzed and acted on by the market, so that shares are neither under-valued nor over-valued. In a Semi- Strong EMH, current prices efficiently adjust to information that is publicly available. If this form of the hypothesis holds true,
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Judicial Resolutions to State School Financing - Case Study Example In its ruling, the Court found that poor communities had to have a high tax rates to generate relatively low per-pupil revenue whereas wealthy communities could have low tax rates and yet still generate relatively high per-pupil revenue (Merrow, 2004). The Court opined that "affluent districts can have their cake and eat it too; they can provide a high quality education for their children while paying lower taxes. Poor districts, by contrast, have no cake at all" (Coon, 1999, citing Serrano). In an attempt to address such a complex social issue, the Court applied the equal-protection analysis of wealth as a suspect classification by extending it for the first time to school districts and ultimately ordered the state legislature to change school financing laws (Coon, 1999). Subsequent legislation was passed that was designed to equalize school funding by increasing state funds for poor communities while putting a cap on per-pupil revenues in wealthy districts and redistributing some of their local property taxes to poor districts (Merrow, 2004). However, the Court had failed to consider that 75% of poor children lived in high spending districts, and it effectively led to low school spending for most poor children (Merrow, 2004). In addition, the public was disconcerted in paying property taxes and in supporting any increase in property taxes that were not helping their local schools (Merrow, 2004). Judicial Resolutions 4 Because of the existing and continuing disparities in school funding and educational disparities, it is doubtful that the Serrano decision can be credited with defining and bringing about the educational equality that its original supporters were hoping for in their praise following the Court's ruling. However, the case can concretely be credited with bringing about massive revision in school financing in California and it spurred an immediate wave of similar rulings and legislative action in other states (Brimley, 2003). The effects of those revisions, even in light of subsequent cases that seemed to rule to the contrary, have lasted through the last several decades and continue to impact education today. San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez (1973) In San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 411 U.S. 1 (1973), issues very similar to those in Serrano were before the Supreme Court of the United States. The San Antonio Independent School District (SAISD), acting on behalf of students whose families resided in poor districts, challenged the Texas state funding scheme by arguing that it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause by underprivileging such students because their schools lacked the vast property
Movie Sabrina with Harrison Ford - Essay Example He does not have a social life because of this character of his. Therefore, when he meets an interesting girl like Sabrina, he has no idea how to properly woo her without making things look like a business deal. David on the other hand is the irresponsible younger brother of Linus who wines and dines women faster than he can end his date nights. He does not have a real interest in the family business and never shows up at his designated office at the family owned business building. The exact opposite of Linus in every way, he believes that the family business can be best run by Linus. David would rather help the family fortune by doing what he does best, spending it. Those traits make these brothers night and day opposites. Unbeknownst to them, they do share one one trait, they are both attracted to the same type of woman represented by Sabrina. Even more surprising, would be the fact that once made to realize his potential by becoming the temporary head of the family business, David acquits himself with aplomb in running company affairs. Another trait he did not realize that he shared with his older
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Personality - Essay Example Several other researches have been conducted by other psychologists that reveal that the big five personality traits indeed impact greatly on the performance of individuals; whether academically or at the place of work. This paper will describe the Big Five personality traits and examine how these traits might contribute positively to the performance of an individual. Buchanan (1998) notes that extraverts are individuals who are outgoing, enthusiastic, sociable, and very confident of themselves. They are also action-oriented and approach the material and social world with a lot of energy. Research also indicates that they prefer being with others because they are very talkative. This kind of trait can indeed contribute positively to the performance of such persons in a various ways. Firstly, it builds strong interpersonal relationships, which is good for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance at the workplace. This is because it makes an individual fit in groups easily thereby improving their performance. Littlepage et al. (1995) noted that extraverts participate better in teamwork compared to their introverted counterparts. Another study by Thoms, Moore, and Scot (1996) revealed that extraverts exhibit positive attitudes toward working as a team. This makes them able to accomplish their assigned tasks by engaging others in-group work. They are also said to make good leaders since they are able to rally the group toward achieving set objectives. In addition, they are very creative thereby improving their performance. Conscientiousness pertains to how people regulate, direct, or control impulse. Conscientious people are said to be very responsible, hard working, ambitious, and thorough in whatever they do. This trait can also impact positively on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. This is because they are more likely to complete their work easily because
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
I need a summary for those 3 articles - Essay Example Meanwhile the Quakers also made a minimal contribution to the college movement. In later times, Methodist and Baptist started establishing colleges which was a resort to middle class society of America. The American colleges soon became a medium of social investment. The American colleges gave birth to a concept of Ã¢â¬Ëself taught and self made manÃ¢â¬â¢ .By the end of 19th century, American colleges also propagated that a man should not spend more than half of his time on studies. An English men visiting American definitely found a very motivated young men and students who could serve the country at the best in the future. The American universities are in hard situation as to make choices in protecting the academic value and there were no political body taking leadership for it. Some universities prefer quality and want to preserve it and proved that they have brain as well as body.Some universities wants to improve the quality of citizen ship and ethical conduct of students .Few universities which maintained their integrity and marveled were Harvard, Stanford, Cornell, Yale, MTI,Brown, Berkeley and Michigan.Accomodating large number of students always been the problem faced by many universities.As economic growth is the responsibility of the Federal government , they are supposed to give subsidies to the graduates to increase productivity. The two areas which offer opportunity in America is education and healthsector.Higher education is becoming business minded where as they should be interested in producing good citizens with creative talent and productivity.Universties and society is interrelated and universities need to utilize full resources to upgrade the students and their utility to the society. Magnet schools which introduced in America in 20th century, gained popularity in 1970s as they promoted racial diversity and improved scholarship opportunities and catered to individual needs and interests of students.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Mackinsey and Company - Essay Example The challenge is that it is extremely difficult for modern leader-managers to motivate and inspire employees, analyze their needs and meet these needs. Lack of leadership and management skills may lead to a failure, low productivity and poor organizational performance. In modern environment, the main challenge is that leader-manager deals with culturally and economically diverse workforce, so he/she should be well aware of motivational theories and their practical application. Combs (2002) pays a special attention to leadership challenges and motivational problems typical for modern organizations. Motivation is one of the main factors which influence productivity and morale, feelings and human relations in the workplace. There are different theories of motivation which try to explain human needs and intentions, intrinsic and extrinsic drivers. People with a high degree of achievement motivation are more persistent, realistic, and action-minded than people with other kinds of motivat ional patterns. Silva (2005), Schultz (2003) and Meuse and Claire (2007) show that motivation has changed influenced by external and internal stimuli.This does not necessarily make them more productive; that seems to depend on whether the task requires some degree of personal initiative or inventiveness. If it does, the achievement-motivated person is very likely to leave his competitors far behind. A great deal can be learned from the cultural environment if attention is paid to complaints, compliments, surveys, and other opinions of employees and patterns of service demand. Finally, among the factors to be considered as part of the internal organizational environment are the structure of an organization, its history, its distinctive strengths and weaknesses, changes in its values, and its culture. Kiel (1999) and Barak (2000) examine and analyze Mallow's hierarchy of needs and motivation principles. Once basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are satisfied, he wants friends and to get folksy and group. Once these needs for belonging are satisfied, he wants recognition and respect from his fellowmen and he wants to achieve independence and competence for himself. One approach, widely known by managers, is set out by Abraham H. Maslow in his book "Motivation and Personality". Maslow's theory of motivation claims that human motives develop in sequence according to five levels of needs. These needs are: psychological (hunger, thirst), safety (protection), social (be accepted, belong to a certain group), esteem (self-confidence, achievements, respect, status, recognition), and self-actualization (realizing one's potential for continued self-development). This theory show that needs follow in sequence and when one need is satisfied it decreases in strength and the higher need t hen dominates behavior. This leads to the statement that a satisfied need is not a motivator. There is a doubt whether this really applies in practice to the higher needs as it is likely that self-esteem requires continues stimulation and renewal. Few attempts have been made to test the validity of Maslow's ideas. A big problem is that Bill does not satisfy higher-order needs through their jobs or occupations, and this cannot really be tested. Another point is that he viewed satisfaction as a major motivator and this is not directly related to
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Marketing a New Product Internationally Essay Marketing is the field which deals with market. By defining the meaning, market is a place where people gathered and contact with one another, build relationship between two, in broad terms after the globalization world become a village and in this global business era marketing is the system of globalized promotional activities of a business which take place to achieve the organizational and financial goals The circle of marketing revolved around the market demands, product development, and reasonable proportion which can learned to instigate a market research that clarify the needs and demands of customer. Although focal process for a product promotion is market research, relying on that a producer can easily plan and develop his product well crafted, innovated, according to the socioeconomic factors, reflect the social and cultural ethics and will meet the consumer demands. Target Market and Product Information: Defining marketing on macro-level; the macro-level marketing is extremely challenging for an organization to market their product Ã¢â¬Å"Unique TVÃ¢â¬ internationally even branded by Philips, especially in Indian market which is a multi-cultural society have many social and religious boundaries, but economically emergent country and have great potential and competition in electronic media which create a huge space for television industry as well as competition. Marketing of a television product that is extraordinary and modern with built-in fingerprint scanner, and an innovative crafts of modern technology, the exceptional fingerprint technology allow users to customize the individuals settings, for instance when a person turns the TV on via their fingerprint the individual can set his own customized profile which contains his favourite channels, recordings etc. It is also ideal for parental control, parents can set the TV to only display the channels they choose for their Childs individual fingerprint as well as the time they allow their child to watch TV. But the perceived quality, emotional constructs, and a particular justification of the purchase can only impact the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to purchase a brand. Target Market, Society and Culture: Before the satellite and cable network Indian had only one state owned channel broadcast, but after the influx of satellite and cable network a huge expansion in the electronic media industry has been witnessed, as well as great competition established in the television products. By determining broadly the rapid growth of Indian television industry since inception to expansion the social practices, including politics and democracy, sport and identity formation, cinema and popular culture has influenced on the daily lives of Indians. Today the electronic media cater immense involvement in the social and cultural lives of Indians, as well as India become a very potential market for the innovative and modern television products. Local Economic Development: India has traditional economy largely based on village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, modern industries, and a massive amount of services. The emerging sector of Indian economy is service sector which has expended remarkably in last decade. But a large force of human resource has attached with the agricultural economic activities, this sector retains the backbone of the Indian economy. Foreign direct investment is increasing especially in the telecommunication and information technology sector, but the privatization of government owned industries and entities is still debateable in the government avenues. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% in the decade since 1997, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India achieved 8. 5% GDP growth in 2006, and again in 2007, significantly expanding production of manufactures. Software industry is the emergent sector of Indian economy; government is capitalizing on the human resource especially English literacy for a competent force to raise the exports of software products and services to western world. This economic growth facilitates India to reduce the fiscal deficit, but the boom in speculative real state business and increased interest rates have influenced the inflation in 2006 to 2007. But a huge problem facing by India is growing population. (Central Intelligence Agency, 2008) Regional Economic Development: Asian economy comprises on the 4 billion people living in 46 different states (60% of the world population). Asia is largest continent of the world and six fourth stats of the world lie in Asia with worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest economy China. The wealth and economic activities of Asia are distributed in different states of Asia as others; which is because of its large size and multiple stateÃ¢â¬â¢s differing cultures, environments, historical ties and government systems. In term of nominal GDP the large economies in Asia are Japan, China, India, and South Korea. By measuring the economically Asia pertains China, the second larges economy in the world by nominal GDP, to Cambodia one of the poorest. The GDP of china in term of purchasing power parity to be the largest economy in Asia and the second largest economy in the world, followed by Japan and India as the worlds third and fourth largest economies respectively. Market Competition: As Indian retains the third largest economy of the world, and massive social and cultural influence on the television industry generates enormous competition in the television industry. India now producing diversity of television products locally, as well as international products is also there. With these competitive forces it is very hard for a new product to attract the audience, but not as much hard for a product with some extra ordinary and exceptional features, to mesmerize and accomplish the needs of the users. As compare with the other products the new and innovative product Ã¢â¬Å"Unique TVÃ¢â¬ can make a difference, because of its fingerprint scanner which can help the user to control and customize the profile of every individual. After the creation and deep study of international and regional scenario the producer and marketer follows second challenge to market the product with new scientific methodologies, which can effectively get the quick and excellent response of the customer. Brand Marketing: There are enumerated factors that affect the buying intentions of customers as quality of services, equity, perceived value, satisfaction, past loyalty, perceived cost of changing supplier and brand perception. Most of them variables are inter-related and they impinge upon customer purchase behaviour cumulatively. High quality products can be created without input from marketing. However, in practice, it has been established that products that make market success received market or customer research support. There are several determinants that contribute to the success of a brand. The ideas of brand marketing lead to the recognition of the research as being based on consumer perception. This leads to the question if different ethnic backgrounds impact the consumer perception of the brand strategies. Marketing Methodologies: Questionnaire Survey:- The survey questionnaire was chosen for its cost effectiveness. The telephone questionnaire allows for a sample population to be easily reached with responses documented and easily dissected using data entry and statistical analyzing methods. Because of their widespread use, questionnaires are non-confrontational to the sample population and do not force opinions or options, allowing for accurate and viable responses to be gathered with little bias or influence from the researchers or complicated research equipment. The questionnaire development will take into consideration possible defects in the question distribution and has made all attempts to use common language and word organisation that is not technical or industry based with the hopes to remove the larger concerns in relation to comprehension and cognition. However, it is important to note that in any research methodology that is dealing with human responses to qualitative or quantitative questions remains the possibility of language bias. Advertisement:- Advertising is any paid form of no personal presentation of ideas, products, or services by an identified sponsor. Most advertising media are mass media: e. g. newspapers, magazines, television, radio, billboards, etc. Thus rather than transmitting messages to one buyer, most ads communicate to thousands or even millions of buyers: this makes each contact for less expensive than personal sales presentation. Sales Promotion:- Like personal selling and advertising, sales promotion stimulates consumer buying and middlemenÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness, but with a wide variety of means. Sales promotion tactics are expected to supplement salespeople and advertising to make them more effective. Retail store window displays, product sampling, premium offers, and coupons are all examples of sales promotion. In contrast personal selling and advertising, many sales promotions are non-continuing, such as exhibits at fairs or contests. Manufacturers and retailers have substantial control over their sales promotions. Publicity:- In contrast to Ã¢â¬Å"AdvertisementÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"PublicityÃ¢â¬ may be defined as any Ã¢â¬Å"UnpaidÃ¢â¬ form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods or services. Personal selling advertising and sales promotional are all direct forms of promotion, whereas publicity is indirect: a firm cannot just go out and buy it. Publicity has been defined as non-personal stimulation of demand for a product, service, or business firm by planting commercially significant news about it in communications media. Some publicity about companies and brands is of course not solicited by sellers: indeed, it may even be negative. Conclusion: In brief we have reached on the conclusion that the most important activity in the business and to promote a brand is marketing. From above literature, it can be stated that marketing in general is based on the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the brand, regional and local economical factor, social and cultural manners and the methodologies applied to market the product. The perceived quality, emotional constructs, and justification of the purchase impact the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to purchase a brand. This research demonstrates that market research cater foci point of marketing strategy, then identifying the organizational and productÃ¢â¬â¢s potentials for the effective product understanding, the marketing consultant and organization should analyze the product strengths and weaknesses to cover it with appropriation. To determine the supply and demand identify the main competitors, and craft a good and competitive piece of product which can compete according to the economical and technological factors prevailed in the market. Then the identification of distribution options is to be the major decision to market the product, a great establishment of distribution channels will pertains a great proportion in successful marketing of a product. Marketing and advertisement campaigns play pivotal role in the success of any product. However, a significant amount of money, time and resources have to place behind marketing to the ethnic (or minority) Ã¢â¬Å"massesÃ¢â¬ and that was many years on the making when an organization advocated for that initiative, that too was looked upon as radical. Coming off the heels of that accomplishment, painting the picture of a viable affluent ethnic consumer might be easier. Ultimately, relevant, comprehensive and actionable insight will lead to informed business decisions and the implementation of marketing best practices. If the world has changed so must a brands attitude and actions towards marketing to new target audiences.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Is There A Timeless Wisdom To Neorealism Politics Essay Neo-realism is the starting point of international politics analysis and the basis of construction for the variant posterior theories. However, nowadays the emergence of new challenges against the neorealist thought lead to the partial marginalisation of the theory. This essay attempts to demonstrate that neo-realisms wisdom, is diachronic and its main arguments can be proved over the time, considering the past and contemporary international system. To prove my argument, I will mainly focus on the theoretical analysis given by the two most significant representatives of neo-realism, Waltz and Mearsheimer. Firstly, I will examine neorealisms fundamental assumptions regarding its interpretation of structure, power and alternations of war and peace, with a parallel evaluation of them. Throughout this process I will mention relevant examples taken from the past and recent history. Secondly, I will discuss the controversial criticisms made against the theory with a coincidently judgment o f them. Finally, in the conclusion I will argue that instead of the recent decline, neo-realisms depictions continue to be and always will remain a timeless wisdom for evaluating the International Relations. Neo-realisms worldview about structures and alternations of war Neo-realist theory comes to the front of politics debates before the beginning of Second Cold War, as a reaction to the new challenges of globalisation, as a resurrection of states role over the system and to restate the significance of bipolarity and systemic constraints in international politics (Burchill 2009: 87). To begin with, we should consider the neo-realist main theoretical arguments to form a clear view about the continuity of the theory until the present. Waltz was the first who dedicated the autonomy of international politics, as a separate field, apart from domestic politics, in his attempt to introduce the scientific rigour to the study of politics (Waltz 1990: 27-28; Burchill 2009: 88). Waltz suggests that the system is formed by structural and unit levels (Waltz 1990: 29). Therefore, he makes a distinction between external and internal factors that affect the international system (Waltz 1990: 27-28) and he proposed the so-called systemic theory as a key to explain the behaviour of the states in the international system (Keohane 1986: 13). Waltzs theory can be valuable for predictions (Burchill 2009: 89). According to him, there is a defined structural continuity over the time situated in the anarchical condition of the international system (J.G. Ruggie 1986: 134). The variety of the units structures, secures a disproportion in their policy outcomes. Hence, similarities in political structures between states sound similarities in their political effects (Waltz 1986: 81). Internationally, the anarchy is the superior law that rules the universe and produces the perpetual willing of survival and power between them (Waltz 1986: 70-97). Though states are characterised by variety domestically, their foreign policy has an exceptional analogy: international political systems stand in relations of coordinationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦No one is entitled to command and none is required to obey (Waltz 1986: 81). States concede an existence of some systemic constraints (commanded by the situation of anarchy) between them, which determinatively affect the relations and impose the game of diplomacy and survival. States reconcile their interests and goals looking to their neighbours (Burchill 2009: 90; Waltz 1986: 70-97). As a result, the structure of the international system is defined by the position each state possess in the whole world ordering (Waltz 1986: 72). Waltz analyzes his ambitious political structure concept reliant on three necessary calculations, in his attempt to distinguish the domestic politics from the international (J.G. Ruggie 1986: 134). The ordering principle of anarchy In international politics, the existence of anarchy indirectly demands from its members to take part in a process of a continuous competition, an informal battle. The international system is formed by self-regarded autonomous units. There is no centralised authority upon them to ensure their integrity, so each unit has the right to fashion its foreign policy and fight for its survival. Waltz states, that the balancing of power must be the ultimate aim of all states (Waltz 1986: 81-93, 99-115; J.G Ruggie 1986: 134-135; Mearsheimer, 2007: 72-75; Burchill 2009: 91-92) At the same time, from the side of offensive realists, Mearsheimer, an equally significant representative of the neo-realism theory, further argues that states are always preparing to confront gainfully a future possible attack or even to gain the opportunity to be a powerful hegemony. Thus, there is no other path except for the pursuit of power in a self-help world. (Mearsheimer 2007: 72-75). Each country sets its own aims and goals which are always depend upon their capabilities. There is no night-watchman who can command powerful states such as United States, so they continue to have the priority among the others. (Mearsheimer 2007: 72-75; Waltz 1986: 81-93, 99-115). Even an international organization such as the United Nations has no influence upon its most powerful members. Indicative is the case of the war against Iraq. Even though the Security Council did not approve the war, the US disregarded the decision and invaded Iraq (Mearsheimer 2006: 699; Weiss Kalbacher, 2008: 332). Furthermore in Europe regional institutions such as NATO and European Union do not have the ability to enforce their member states to go against their strategic interests (Mearsheimer 2006: 699-700). The intentions and the character of a state This assumption allows for the fact that no one state always acts exclusively to ensure its survivalÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦States are free individuals who often make decisions under the heavy pressure of events (Waltz, 1986: 85). Simplifying this statement, neo-realism argues that we cant just trust that a culture or a democratic regime or the peaceful history or a status-quo character of a country or ideology can guarantee the deterrence of a war. The intentions of a country are not always certain (Waltz, 1986: 87-92, 99). Viewing the past, many traditionally peaceful states have changed their pure intentions into aggressive war strategies. This becomes worse if we account that every state has the military capability to do this. This is evident in the United States policy. Does any from the above reasons dissuaded Americans from declaring war against Iraq? The answer is no. This necessity imposed by the anarchy, began an endless game of power between the states. This competition actually is inevitable because no one can predict and be sure about the further intentions of a state. Of course the interests of statesmen are not always predictable as well. In the case of Germany for example, if the world knew from the beginning that Hitlers ambitious plans, was to make his country an empire and a great power all over the world, I am sure that a big number of countries would have changed their foreign policy radically (Mearsheimer 2007: 72-75; Waltz 1986: 81-93, 99-115). And Mearsheimers point completes the meaning: In anarchic systemÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦states that want to survive have little choice but to assume the worst about the intentions of other states and to compete for power with them. This is the tragedy of great power politics (Mearsheimer 2007: 75). The distribution of capabilities among the states The distribution of capabilities among the states also helps to define the structure of the international system. As Waltz argues, states are differently placed by their power. The units of the anarchic system distinguished by their greater or lesser capabilities for performing similar tasks (Waltz, 1986: 92-93). Although states seek to ensure their survival in the political order, they dont have equal capabilities (Waltz, 1986: 101). A states capability of possessing military power for instance, can strike the fear in its competitors and the necessity of having an equally powerful military force. Consequently, neo-realists divide the states as great and small powers according to their place in the global system. (Burchill, 2009: 92) A vivid illustration is the United States. As Mearsheimer states, no country in Western Hemisphere would dare to strike the USA, because it is so powerful relative to its neighbours (Mearsheimer, 2007: 74; Waltz, 1986: 92-93, 99-115). We can illustrate the diachronic value of neo-realism, by looking at the past behaviour of certain states. On the twentieth century Imperial Germany, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan have all tried to establish their hegemony by conducting great wars, but they failed (Mearsheimer, 2007: 77). In addition, Mearsheimer interestingly examines the case of China, which is parallel with Germanys past behaviour. While USA had established its regional hegemony in the twentieth century, the gradual growth of Chinas power over Asia frustrated United States and Chinas neighbours. How the world will react on Chinas challenge? Will China balance its power with the other great powers or will it assert the hegemony as a new Germany? Surely, the great powers will not just stand by and watch to their concrete position in the world being lost and consequently they will try to chain Chinas increased development. So, no one is to guarantee that Chinas rise will be peaceful (Mearsheimer 2007: 82-86). Chang es like this in power distribution may cause a future war (Mearsheimer 2007: 78). A growing power always light the suspicions of the dominant powers and the dominant state knowing its days at the pinnacle of power are numbered, has strong incentives to launch a preventive war against the challenger to halt its rise (Mearsheimer 2007: 82). Germany for instance, seeing the threatening rise of the Soviet Union in the 90s launched preventive wars in 1914 and 1939 correspondingly, to maintain its power in Europe. Furthermore, nowadays we can see Chinas rise as a similar case, since as I have already mentioned before, its significant growth keeps United States and its neighbours in a constant lookout (Mearsheimer 2007: 78-82). A controversial matter which neo-realism also tries to identify, is how many great powers are enough to rule the world (Mearsheimer 2007: 75). The most significant representatives of neo-realism, Mearsheimer and Waltz, converge in their analysis about the ideal polarity system and on how dangerous the unipolar system is. Both point out that the end of bipolarity between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 90s and the latter unipolarity of United States is the single most dramatic change in contemporary world politics. The theorists who claim that bipolar systems are less war-prone than unipolar, rely on the distribution of capabilities theory (Burchill 2009: 97-98). Waltz proposes that with the end of bipolarity, the distribution of capabilities among states has become lopsided and the growing inequality between states would undermine the peace (Waltz, 2000: 7). As a result of Americas dominance over the world, other states would attempt to balance against it or reach its p ower. Moreover, United States would probably feel militarily secure to impose its domination to other regions and try to reorder their polity, as in the case of Iraq and Afghanistan (Burchill 2009: 80). Critics and challenges against neo-realism The importance of neo-realism has been widely recognized as the primary school that established the international politics as autonomous field in politics (Keohane 1986: 16). However, the theoretical exhibition of neorealists approaches in the 90s was and continues to be the reason of the countless divergences between the critics, who mainly judge Waltzs theories and propose new ways on viewing international relations. Some of them criticized Waltzs theory for its omissions. Ruggie, for example, provides his institutional transformation concept (Keohane 1986: 17), an attempt to prove that Waltzs political concept was substantively mistaken (Ruggie, 1986: 152), because he didnt account structures property relations changes, such as dynamic density variations (Keohane, 1986:17, Walt, 1990: 28). Keohane, also discusses the weakness of Waltzs theory to include further explanatory elements of the internationals system structure, like economic interdependence, international institutions and the information richness (Keohane, 1986: 18). They both believe that Waltzs theory should paid more attention to aspects of world politics that ignores (Keohane 1986: 24). Waltzs response, is that these elements, even though are important, cannot be a part of a states theory because they are matters of practical interest and cannot alone write a theory. In contrast the positional picture of a state should stay the main explanation key for states relations because simply the anarchy rules the whole. States are positioned in a self-help world where there is a perpetual game of survival. Moreover, as Waltz argues, theories are useful for understanding and explaining and are not necessarily guides for application (Waltz 1986: 329-330; Waltz, 1990: 28-29). Therefore, critics of neorealist theory fail to understand that theory is not a statement about everything that is important in international political life, but rather a necessarily slender explanatory construct (Waltz, 1990: 30). Other critics underestimate the conservative character of Waltzs theory. They support that, Waltz presents structures as given political fixtures and the international system as a cyclical pattern (Burchill, 2009: 93-94). As a result, Cox argues, neo-realism legitimizes the status-quo, which favours the great powers and establishes a permanent disability of weak states for positional change (Burchill, 2009: 94). In other words, the prospects for alternative expressions of political community are limited (Linklater 1995: 258-9; Burchill 2009: 99). But Waltz identifies that Coxs accusations are based on the fact that he overstates the states role as units in the international system and thereby make them static (Waltz 1986: 338). Other theoretical perspectives have also emerged as a response to neorealist thought, and challenged neorealist. An example of those theories is liberalism. With childish naivety these theories strongly support the ideas of a big economic community co-operation, pacification and globalisation. In other words, neo-liberalists put the importance of ruling the world peace, not in the military capabilities like neo-realists, but on economic factors. Neo-liberalists argue that the new challenges of globalisation, the technological evolution and the appearance of non-state actors, have established a borderless world where states have now a very low profile (Burchill 2009: 95-97). Doyle suggests that because the unit-members of a liberal democracy have pounded continuously from violence and wars as a product of the anarchic system, now they have reduced their aggressive incentives and they are ready to co-operate with each other in the name of peace (Doyle 1986: 1151-1169). But, these hopes for a peaceful world in terms of economic globalisation and democracy were shattered in the wake of September 11 and neo-realism has made a stunning comeback in the realm of international relations (Mearsheimer 2007: 86). (Besides, I dont believe that Cyprus could ever be as equal as United Kingdom politically or economically nor as able as it to pretend rights on the international foreground. This cant be accomplished because, states are rational actors. The higher amount of power each state has, the higher security will enjoy (Mearsheimer, 2007: 74). ) Furthermore, neo-liberalists havent consider countries such as Africa which are unaffected by globalisation and consequently have little opportunity to take part in this community (Burchill 2009: 95-97). In addition, Krasner claims that, not all the constituent parts of a nation-states sovereignty are equally vulnerable to globalisation and the transnational corporations are not as global as first thought. Despite their popular image, they remain largely anchored at home (Krasner 1999). Burchill concludes that, the distribution of capabilities will always remain the primary key for understanding politics because the economic interdependence of the last century failed to prevent the First World War and some conflicts among this alleged economical community of the world, like the break-up of Yugoslavia. Nuclear weapons and the possession military power will always have the greatest importance in International Relations (Waltz 2000: 4-7; Burchill 2009: 95-97). Waltz further accounts, that a state will never diminish its self-interests for the sake of international order (Burchill, 2009: 93). This will happen because the states constantly looking for opportunities to gain advantage over each other, with the ultimate prize being a hegemony (Mearsheimer, 2007: 77). Conclusion This essay has argued that neorealisms main assumptions could constitute a diachronic guide book for states and statesmen. One claim made about neo-realism, is that neo-realism died with the end of Cold War, because the new challenge of globalisation guarantees the world peace in terms of cooperation, liberalisation and paralyzes the role of states. Another suggests that neo-realism is old-fashioned because now the idea of democracy and the subordination on laws recommendations overflow into the world. However, there are strong evidence that the neo-realists view of politics will always remain a fundamental and essential key to explain world affairs and states behaviours (Burchill, 2009: 86). Firstly, the units function in an anarchic international system. Domestically, the variety of the units still leads to differently potential outcomes and interests. Internationally, states still seek to maximize their power or balancing each other to survive. Secondly, states always fear for possible attacks and therefore try to acquire as much power as possible in order to ensure their security. The inequality of capabilities gives a state the opportunity to be a threat against others or even to assert the hegemony. There is no one above states to safeguard their integrity and so states are never certain if other states intentions are aggressive or defensive. Associatively, the military and security power still remain the main concern for international politics with economic factors coming second. Thirdly, neorealists views on what causes war, seems that are still well-timed. A change in the distribution of capabilities can light the suspicions and launch a preventative war. In terms of polarity, states struggle to gain the label of a great power and thereby to succeed their interests. As a result, even more states have the right and the opportunity to participate in this game of power which it may cause a war. Those reasons, as neo-realism dictates, somehow coerce states to march each other temporally to keep a balanced peace or to cause a likely war. Therefore, though the theoretical line of neo-realism is fashioned on the past, it can also apply to the present and the continuity of the theory can be detected in neorealists approaches over the years. The world remains a dangerous placeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦States still worry about their survival, which means that they have little choice but to pay attention to the balance of power. International politics is still synonymous with power politics, as it has been for all of recorded history (Mearsheimer, 2007: 86).
Dating: Bars, Clubs, and Personal Advertisements Single adults partake of many activities to seek dates and find mates. Many use advertisements in local newspapers to attract possible candidates for a relationship. Others go to single's clubs and bars to find their potential soul mate. The type of activities people choose are dependent on the person's self- esteem and self-confidence. The information for this research was obtained from the article Ã¢â¬Å"Self Esteem of Persons Seeking Dates Via Bars, Singles Clubs, and Personal Advertisements.Ã¢â¬ The article was written by Paul Yelsma and Paul L. Wienir. It appears in Ã¢â¬Å"Sociological SpectrumÃ¢â¬ for January - March 1996. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The research method used in this article was a questionnaire. These questionnaires were sent to people who advertised in the local paper. Single's club participants were presented questionnaires and asked to complete them at one of the two clubs in the same geographic region. Those who attended bars were either contacted directly or given questionnaires. The questionnaires were completed by 152 subjects: 40 from ads; 62 attended singles clubs, and 50 frequented bars. (Yelsma and Weinir, p. 35) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã What effect does self esteem have in a person's decision on what type of method to use to find their possible companion? It is shown that people with lower self-esteems tend to choose personal advertisements, while people with higher self esteems tend to lean towards the bar scene. Others with a mediocre self-esteem seem to go towards the clubs scene. According to Josephs, Larrick, Steele, and Nisbett, (1992, p. 27) Ã¢â¬Å"The higher one's self esteem, the less one has to fear from threats to the self, and individuals with higher levels of self-esteem should be less affected by the threats to the self.Ã¢â¬ This means that the higher ones self esteem is, the more they will not be afraid to show themselves in public. Those with the low self-esteems, will hide behind the words of a personal advertisement, while those with higher self-esteems will be open enough to attempt to meet people on a personal basis. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the reasons people are reluctant to use personal ads are because of their odd beginnings. In the early days of personal ads, they were used by those seeking homosexual relationships, and for Ã¢â¬Å"immoral actions.Ã¢â¬ However, since then, the have become much popular. People from all walks of life use personal ads to attract others with similar likes and dislikes. In a personal advertisement, the person making the ad gets the advantage of never actually meeting the person before first contact. This allows them to have a veil of secrecy around them. For those with low self-esteem, this allows them to hide
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Robinson Crusoe When Robinson Crusoe gets shipwrecked and stranded on a desolate island Ã¢â¬Å"I am cast upon a horrible desolate island void of all hope of recoveryÃ¢â¬ p.91, in the Caribbean he first considers it a place of captivity holding him back from his dreams and wishes like a prison, but when he is finally able to leave it some twenty-eight years later to return home to England he yearns to return back to the island. Why? You may ask yourself, read on and I will answer that question. Crusoe grows to enjoy being the ruler of his own world, he also becomes antisocial, and starts to enjoy being alone. When he returns home to England he finds no one waiting for him, and he feels lost. When Robinson Crusoe gets over the fact that he is probably going to have to stay on the island for a great deal of time, (until he is rescued, or until he dies) he starts building a fortress for shelter and protection from the elements. He plants wheat for food, and explores the island with his gun in hand to look for animals for meat, he also finds goats which he brings a few kids back to a coral that he made so that he can breed them. Crusoe enjoys being at centre stage, as when he has dinners with his parrot, dog, and two cats by his side, he presides over them Ã¢â¬Å"like a king.Ã¢â¬ This superior power over his pets foreshadows his later relationship toward his servant Friday, who was a cannibal that he saved and taught English to and became close to. One of the first words that he taught him was the word Ã¢â¬Å"masterÃ¢â¬ witch Crusoe was to be called by. There were no second thoughts of Friday being an equal, he was definitely going to become a servant, who was in ferior in rank, power, and respect. Crusoe likes being able to control his ow... ... A man so isolated and lonely and so far away from Ã¢â¬Å"homeÃ¢â¬ felt lost and empty, but because of his strong character and beliefs he managed to create his own little world of superiority, trust, power and respect. When he returns to England expecting family, friends and happiness, he only realizes that his island he thought of as a prison holding him back from the rest of the world would become his final desired resting place. It is very true that sometimes happiness is right under your nose you just have to look for it and try to make it work. The grass may seem greener on the other side, b7ut thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not always the case. Crusoe learned this through his journey of events on the island. He grew in character, hope, faith and belief instead of growing in the material ways and found that happiness he was looking for, right under his feet the whole time. Robinson Crusoe and Isolation Essay -- essays research papers Robinson Crusoe When Robinson Crusoe gets shipwrecked and stranded on a desolate island Ã¢â¬Å"I am cast upon a horrible desolate island void of all hope of recoveryÃ¢â¬ p.91, in the Caribbean he first considers it a place of captivity holding him back from his dreams and wishes like a prison, but when he is finally able to leave it some twenty-eight years later to return home to England he yearns to return back to the island. Why? You may ask yourself, read on and I will answer that question. Crusoe grows to enjoy being the ruler of his own world, he also becomes antisocial, and starts to enjoy being alone. When he returns home to England he finds no one waiting for him, and he feels lost. When Robinson Crusoe gets over the fact that he is probably going to have to stay on the island for a great deal of time, (until he is rescued, or until he dies) he starts building a fortress for shelter and protection from the elements. He plants wheat for food, and explores the island with his gun in hand to look for animals for meat, he also finds goats which he brings a few kids back to a coral that he made so that he can breed them. Crusoe enjoys being at centre stage, as when he has dinners with his parrot, dog, and two cats by his side, he presides over them Ã¢â¬Å"like a king.Ã¢â¬ This superior power over his pets foreshadows his later relationship toward his servant Friday, who was a cannibal that he saved and taught English to and became close to. One of the first words that he taught him was the word Ã¢â¬Å"masterÃ¢â¬ witch Crusoe was to be called by. There were no second thoughts of Friday being an equal, he was definitely going to become a servant, who was in ferior in rank, power, and respect. Crusoe likes being able to control his ow... ... A man so isolated and lonely and so far away from Ã¢â¬Å"homeÃ¢â¬ felt lost and empty, but because of his strong character and beliefs he managed to create his own little world of superiority, trust, power and respect. When he returns to England expecting family, friends and happiness, he only realizes that his island he thought of as a prison holding him back from the rest of the world would become his final desired resting place. It is very true that sometimes happiness is right under your nose you just have to look for it and try to make it work. The grass may seem greener on the other side, b7ut thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not always the case. Crusoe learned this through his journey of events on the island. He grew in character, hope, faith and belief instead of growing in the material ways and found that happiness he was looking for, right under his feet the whole time.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
This paper is an essay on Antigone. The story Antigone is a great Greek tragedy. Sophocles, an ancient Greek playwright, is the author of the story. It is a great story. It is known throughout the world. This essay is going to trace the character of Antigone through the beginning, middle, and end of the story. Antigone is a very strong willed character. In the very first scene of the book Antigone is talking to her sister (Ismene) about how their two brothers (Eteocles and Polyneices) killed each other fighting over the thrown. Antigone is enraged over the fact that Creon (AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle and the new king) has buried Eteocles with military honors but has left Polyneices to rot. Creon has declared that any person who buries Polyneices will be killed, but Antigone doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care. Antigone is driven to bury her brother and she wants her sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s help. Ã¢â¬Å"Ismene, I am going to bury him. Will you come?Ã¢â¬ (pg.750 line 30). Ismene is too afraid of Creon to help Antigone. Antigone is determined to bury her brother at any cost, and unlike her sister, she is not afraid of Creon. Ã¢â¬Å"Creon is not strong enough to stand in my way,Ã¢â¬ (pg.750 line 35). Not even the threat of death is enough to make Antigone afraid of Creon. At this point in the book she is stubborn and self-righteous. Antigone then goes out at night and buries Polyneices. That makes Creon very mad, so he unburies Poylneices and posts guard around the body. The next day a whirlwind kicks up around the guards and Antigone starts to bury Polyneices again. Unfortunately the whirlwind died before Antigone could finish burying him, so she is captured and brought to Creon. Antigone boldly admits to burying her brohter despite the fact that she could be killed. Creon tries to convince her that what she did is wrong by pointing out that Eteocles is her brother and Polyneices is a traitor for attacking the city. Despite the fact that her brother, Polyneices, attacked the city, Antigone still loves her brothers equally. Ã¢â¬Å"His own brother, traitor or not, are equal in blood,Ã¢â¬ (pg.766 line 110). Antigone enrages Creon by refusing to admit Polyneices fault. Ismene tries to take the blame with Antigone but Antigone refuses her help. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, save yourself, I shall not envy you. There are those who will praise you, I will have honor too,Ã¢â¬ (pg.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The dawn of the 16th century, brought with it the evolution of great knowledge, an era of enlightenment, with not only the new growing social lifestyle of people but also the evolution in their thinking. The idea of love and fear therefore was the one established and molded into a new sculpture by the revolutionist and philosophers; and how we know the right and wrong today is what was established through the writings of these intellectualsÃ¢â¬â¢ years ago. Founder of political sciences of the 15th century, Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, was an Italian born writer, philosopher, and politician; who through the strength of his pen and intellect was able to give the world a new perspective of the never dieing entity, love and hope. As a man of Renaissance, while holding a high political position, his writings are also a combination of his deep political thought and insight. He is most famous for his short novel, The Prince, which is his realistic approach towards the political discourse of that time period, exhibiting the advance towards power. Ã¢â¬Å"The Prince,Ã¢â¬ originally written in 1513 (however got published in 1532), is known as a political treatise, for its formal exposition of the ideology of political affairs. It is usually alluded to being called as a piece of act which represents the word Ã¢â¬Å"Machiavellian,Ã¢â¬ which refers to the playing politics in a ruthless way in order to retain power and position; moreover many critics have also states the story to be satire. The novel is a form of guide for a ruling or an expected prince, of how he can attain his throne, and then make sure that he remains in power and control. The idea of attaining the power is placed as crucial and primary to all, even where principality comes secondary to its approach, which he does so by dictating old examples of rulers, and making his own generalizations and hypothesizes upon them. According to Machiavelli, the first moral of ruling is to have an economically and politically stable country, and then it is upon the ruler as to how he would protect it even if the ways used by him were cruel, they remained justifiable as long as they kept her power sustained. The main purpose of the book was to explain MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s ability and knowledge in politics, not promoting love and prosperity between powers, but rather working by conquering peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s fear and force. There are various themes discussed by the author in the book such as military and defense, which are the prerequisites of a firm state, having a fortified and well protected area, with no help being taken from allies as that would be a burden of favor, and stand brave in the battlefield. The book quite rigidity states that attributes such as mercy, religiousness, and principality, are good virtues too possess, but are not for a prince to adapt, as he at times has to work against them in order to defend his land. Also that a prince is better at being known as a miser than as a generous ruler, as it would weaken his economic status as well as bring grief upon people with larger taxes, thus having a bad reputation would be better than rather ending up with nothing. In answering to the idea of love and fear Machiavelli states that Ã¢â¬Å"it would be best to be both loved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled to choose will find greater security in being feared than in being loved. Ã¢â¬ (Machiavelli, Chapter 17, pp 60) He believes that commitments made under fear, are always kept firm; while a prince should also be careful that he is not feared to the point of hatred. Creating fear within the commandment of an army is necessary in order to gain their respect, and it should be brought upon the garrison even if the prince has to turn towards cruelty. Through the book the author emphasizes the fact that the only power which kept a prince from winning over his land and also his people is actually his ability to rule, rather than his fortune. He dictates the examples of Hannibal and Scipio Africanus; Hannibal who maintained a strong fear throughout his army, which consisted of soldiers of various races, and it was this fear of his which kept the army sturdy and united through out his reign; while Scipio, no matter had great abilities but is famous for the mutinies and trouble he had to face from the side of his own army. Virtue for Machiavelli did not carry a moral tone but it was rather based upon skill, courage, physical and mental capacity. However, in chapter of 8 of his book, the author mentions that no matter cruelty is important for governance but it should be properly utilized to attain a goal, but if it is made repetitive and arouses constant fear amongst the citizens then the prince does not contain any ability. It is not necessary for him to be loved, but he should be close enough to his people that he is not even hated, and thus requires both wisdom and courage; and above that the peripheral point should be established by which the prince is feared but not hated. And who could understand the complexities and the queries of life in a more powerful than the searcher of the nature, Plato, one of the greatest Greek philosophers. Born in 427 BC in Athens, Plato was the student of Socrates, and had his theories as an explanation and an elaboration of those presented by his master. Most of his writings are found in the form of a dialogue between him and Socrates, discussing numerous fascinating topics. Gorgias, is one of the most famous dialogues written by Plato, in which he defines a manÃ¢â¬â¢s virtuously right and proper nature. (Plato, 1994) It is believed to be a transitional dialogue, in which Plato represents Socrates teachings towards him in an indirect manner. This dialogue is seen to be carried out between Socrates, Gorgias and Callicles who are both rhetoricians, Pollus and Chaerephon who are both philosophy students; and the dialogue begins from Socrates side to prove the rhetoricians for being only people of sheer words. This dialogue is famous for the themes which it carries such as that of morality, philosophy and spirituality; forms into a debate between truth and falsehood. Socrates in his dialogue proving refutation explains that it is worse to inflict evil upon somebody rather than being an innocent victim of it and the most, unhappy man of the world would be the one who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet his just punishment. While the best cure for an evil man would be when he meets his justice; paying for his sins. He believes that a wrong doer should be left on his own, his body to rot in the pain of his own guilt; and only with time when he realizes his guilt would his sins be forgiven and he move towards becoming a better and stronger person; no matter the rhetoricians disagree with his thought, as they believe that such treatment would be doing more evil than benefiting for good. Socrates ends the dialogue by explaining that on the Day of Judgment, man would be scrutinized and judged naked so that there are no hindrances for what he truly is. He believes that the evil doerÃ¢â¬â¢s body would be brandished by their sins, and they would be identifiable. According to Socrates, in the dialogue a manÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue should be his ultimate goal, which should be based upon principles, and truth; while those who tend to love their own self alone and indulge in self pampering, are the selfish ones, as their self gratification would never cease but would only continue to get bigger with hunger of power and indulgence. Creating fear and causing pain to others is the greatest evil, as identified by Plato; and becomes the most significant theme of most of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s writings because of the unjust and evil death of his teacher Socrates; which destroyed his vision of the truth and its enhancement in nature. The dialogue however, concludes by declaring virtue as the Ã¢â¬Å"good life,Ã¢â¬ which can only be attained via the compliance of principles and correct behavioral methods. Both the books Ã¢â¬Å"PrinceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Gorgias,Ã¢â¬ believe in the achievement of power, not only to gain a greater control but also to satisfy and pamper oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own self; and agree to the fact that once in power. An individual might stray from principality and truth for long term benefits seen at a larger scale; but should refrain from evil as it would create hatred as well as lead to godÃ¢â¬â¢s in the life of Hereafter. However when Machiavelli describes the attainment of power as manÃ¢â¬â¢s vital goal, Plato believes into its attainment but to a certain level alone could one sacrifice his principles to achieve it; after which he would be nothing but an evil dweller, increasing his part of sins. Both the writings show the difference between the thought of a politician, who take s the world in more of a materialistic manner, and that of a philosopher who takes a deeper look into things and does not talk about an individual alone or his unitary life; but talks about all the third parties affected by his actions and his spiritual life which would also be affected by his balance of truth and falsehood. Compare and describe the relationship between sexuality and society in the authors read so far. Writers since centuries have talked about how sexuality and society work together, complimenting each other, which evolve gradually with the society giving more leverage and promotion at an open arena to sexuality, as it grows wider and is able to compensate more liberal point of views openly. Ã¢â¬Å"Don Juan,Ã¢â¬ is a classic story which has been told and retold since centuries; its legendary tale being changed and evolved with the evolution of time, it has seen changes according to the prevailing circumstances and the notions of the writers who dwelled with its story line. Don Juan, as announced by the Spanish or Don Giovanni as told by the Italians, is the tale of a social libertine, an individual who has given of all the norms and rights of the society, such a person who does not believe into the limits of religion or morality. The legend of Don Juan talks about such a person who indulges himself into the pleasure of seducing women and enjoys winning over them. One day, Don Juan meets the dead spirit of the father of a girl he has seduced; casually and not knowing it he invites him to his house for dinner. In return to this compliment, the father invites Don Juan to his graveyard for dinner, when he accepts the invitation and extends his hand to the spirit, pulls him into the grave and takes him into the bottomless pit of hell, where he is to burn in the redemption for his unforgivable sins. The oldest version of Don Juan to be placed in writing is believed to be written by Tirso de Molina, by the name El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra. Later a revised edition was written by Moliere, in 1665; who was also made to make continous ammendments by the critics, who took as a largely shameful act; and was not until 1185, that the orignal play was allowed to be acted without censorships. However, the society at that time failed to accept the play, as they found it too liberal and outspoken, which broke the barriers of religion and offended the prestiege of the king. Thus it laid down as least cost effective, and as the protagonist himself is portrayed as a catholic, thsu it further offends the teaches of the church by portraying them as hypocrates and evil doers. On the other hand, the representation of Don Juan in that era represents how sexulaity was missed used even in those times, but hardly any writteen record is seen because of the fact that the rulers didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want any such tales to be spoken of openly; theey were then brought under the case of adultery. Don Juan, also is the symbol of evil, a womanizer who cannot attain his forgiveness, he has sined so much in his life that even his good deeds are shadowed by his hypocrite nature. Every action of his holds insincerity and cannot be forgiven, and when eventually it is symbolised that he has been taken into the hell, it shows that the world did not contain any less painful avenge for him; and his death brought peace to all the woman who had suffered because of his flimsy character. Therefore by the story of Don Juan, conceived in the early 17th century, it can be seen that sexuality was miss used even in that time period but the society perferred to keeep it hidden and secretive, burrying such evil facts and tales which spoke against the religious and moral norms of the ruling powers. Evil of the society was thus only a hushed talk in those times. Ã¢â¬Å"The Prince,Ã¢â¬ a guide for the rulers of the world written by a government official of Florence, Italy, Niccolo Machiavelli, in the 16th Century; helps us know today of how gravely was the impact of politics and the attainment of power and prestige in the lives of people of that era. As the book states different tips and ways in which a prince could govern his kingdom in thee most efficient way winning both his commandment upon army and his position. Machiavelli also believed that gaining love from his people was not the most important part of ruling; a prince could never be too generous and lenient with his folk; however it was of vital importance that he managed his fear upon them so that he would respect him and treats him with the power and gratitude that he deserves. A ruler was not always successful through his inheritance or his economic strength; but he was turned into a symbol of esteem through his ability; which not only shined in his character but also was represented by the society which he ruled. Thus the prince held great responsibility for his own self and the lives of all those, whose protection was sworn onto him. To take even a deeper analysis into the lives of the people of the 16th century, we might take a look into the analysis of the book Ã¢â¬Å"Leviathan,Ã¢â¬ written by Thomas Hobbes in 1660. After looking through the time via the perspectives of a story teller, and then a politician, we take into the account of the era through the notions formed by a political philosopher; this book did not only establish a political thought in the minds of thee people but was also significant enough in influencing and establishing the entire Western political philosophy and laying down the perspective for the social contract theory. The book was first written by Hobbes at the time of the English Civil War, where he saw chaos and trouble through out the society. In such times Hobbes believed that the only thing which could keep the community together would be a strong unified governing system which would act as a central body in decision making, keeping away the evils of chaos and civil misbehavior. The theory represented by Hobbes believes that if man is left without a government to live in a free market, operated by no restrictions, then he lives the life of nature, whereby everything is free for anybody, which in the long run would lead to war, poverty, frustration and hatred. To prevent this, a social contract needs to be established which would establish a civil society, and distribute the scarce resources in a much more efficient way. This is a form of a commonwealth, which would help establish a protected civil society. The book can be divided into four parts, whereas the one which represents the society and its relation to sexuality is book one, Ã¢â¬Å"of Man. Ã¢â¬ Chapter 6 of this book discusses the theme of the involuntary emotions which arise inside a human being, over which he holds no control, known as passions. He describes these motions of man as animal instincts, categorizing them as Ã¢â¬Å"vital,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"voluntary. Ã¢â¬ Vital being those which formulate the metabolism and are innate, while the later are those which man learns with the course of his life. He by this formulates the idea that human nature is actually a by product of his metabolism. His innate motions form desires known as endeavors, which raise love and hatred in man, which then form an aversion in a human being. While some of these desires are born with man, while some re learnt so with time and experience, and it is then from these appetites and aversions that passions arise which are known to be specific to human nature, of which those which qualify to be his appetite are those things that he likes, while those which fall into his aversions formulate his hatred and are evil. Then Chapter 11 and 13 of the book describe how manners differ in human beings and how he would respond to his conditions of misery. Hobbes further here describes how power in man could be self created and that which is instrumental attained from his society. However a man may differ from another due to his different manners which come from his ability to negotiate between power and fear; and it is through this knowledge that the society can in the end attain peace; when fear originates from ignorance and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of foreseeing the future. Hobbes then concludes this part of his book with the thesis that when a human being lives in a society without any social contract, at that time he is living in a Ã¢â¬Å"state of nature,Ã¢â¬ and when a society is bent into such a living then it is nothing more than just a flake of imagination having no true existence. As Thomas Hobbes states: Ã¢â¬Å"In such condition, there is no place for industry . . . no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation . . . no commodious Building; no instruments of moving . . . no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Ã¢â¬ (Chapter 13) References Fort, A. ,B. and Kates, H. , S. 1935 Don Juan or The Stone Death. Minute History of the Drama. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. p. 47. Retrieved on Nov 27, 2007 from. http://www. theatrehistory. com/french/donjuan001. html Hobbes, T. (1651) The Leviathan. London: Andrew Crooke. Chapter 13 Machiavelli, N. (1908). The Prince, (1513). ed. W. K. Marriott. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, Pp 60. Plato. (1994) Collected Dialogues. eds. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Post Colonialism Theory To understand the post colonialism theory, I believe that we must first take a brief look at how we got here. In order to reach the post era, we first must walk through the challenges and lessons of those before us. How else would the history that we have to teach us today be there, how else would we have the literature to educate us? Colonialism was all about the newer, bigger, better lands and though these lands had natives already, they were Just another obstacle. They would befriend the natives and get them to teach them the ways of the land in order to live and survive off the land.Once they were self-sufficient, they would begin to try to conform the natives to their way of life as the proper way of life. They would teach them that they were living wrong and evil lives and would eventually turn against the natives when they did not conform to their way of life. Therefore switching roles from the colonized to the colonizers. In switching the roles of powe r and showing their true colors and purpose for being there, they showed their true nature for possession and power, for fear and hate.Throughout the texts that we have been studying, we see this over ND over again in the way that these characters move in and take over. As we look at the way Galoshes was possessive of his people and his land, we see the way he did as he pleased. He was known to be two thirds god and Ã¢â¬Å"a tyrant. Ã¢â¬ (Manson 15) As in those who are the colonizers, he was feared and not necessarily respected. He imposed his wishes and commands on his people and rather than living for them he forced them into submission, such as claiming his birthright, Ã¢â¬Å"the privilege of sleeping with their brides before the husbands were permitted. (Manson 15) as you see even now throughout the history books. It is a constant hunger for the power and desire of what is not ours that drives some. He lived this way for some time thinking that he is content until the farmer' s son brings him news of Unkind who is living in the forest with the animals as one. This is something new and undiscovered to him, but still not enough to get him totally worked up. Something untouched, something that he does not control or possess, so he sends the prostitute to see if he can disrupt it.It is in the continued thirst for power and possession that drives him to colonize in a way even Enkindles life in the ores. Galoshes is so bored, cold or immune to what he is doing that he forgot (Mason 17) that he has even done this and continues on with his life as he has done every day before that with no regard as to what impact he may have had on this man's life or history. The Tempest we see Prospers exiled on an island and living as the kingpin so to speak, but as we read on, it was not always that way.He was yet another example of the colonized becoming the colonizer. He came to the island as a humble exile, fleeing with his daughter Miranda after his brother Antonio had be aten him and moved his titles, lands and wealth to teach him a lesson. He befriended an island imp named Clinical who teaches them how to live on the island and in turn Miranda teaches him to speak. Prospers magically binds Clinical as a slave after he turns on him and holds his release over his head as a continual show of power.Where once he was liked well enough, he is now referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"a villainÃ¢â¬ by Miranda (Shakespeare act 1, scene 2), it is funny how the role are reversed when your usefulness has worn off and you no long hold the upper hand. The same ways Prospers holds Ariel, but he does not mind since he freed him from a much more evil master. Colonized and colonizers are switching roles and taking on roles of the others in this story. Everyone wants the power, yet no one knows how to share it because each feels that the other is less superior.As we look at the idea that both of these men Just wanted the possession of what they were after in the story, was that truly what they were after? Are we sure they were not after something else? An author by the name of Edward Said argued that Ã¢â¬Å"a literary text seldom conveys only one messageÃ¢â¬ (Baldwin/Quinn 10). Could it be that they were after friendship, after love, after revenge, after hatred, after immortality (whether it was to be remembered in name or to live on as a god), or was it Just to die where they came from?So let's explore these options a little bit more. If we look to Galoshes, in changing the steps of Enkindles life with the prostitute, Unkind comes into his own and discovers who he is as a man and not Just animal by opening his eyes to his sexual nature and not Just his annalistic primal nature. Unkind comes to the city and challenges Galoshes to a man to man battle, which shows the release of anger and hate within them. The anger and hate was battled out for so long that upon the end of the battle it says they were exhausted.It states that when they stood, Ã¢â¬Å"He tu rned to Unkind who leaned against his shoulder and looked into his eyes and saw himself in the other, Just as Unkind saw himself in GaloshesÃ¢â¬ (Manson 24). If we look deeper into this quote from the book we see several things, we see love, we see friendship, and we could even see immortality of an everlasting soul mate. We see this love and friendship grow throughout the remainder of the story and most would say this is the main theme.They learn together, fight together, they even defy the gods together and therefore Galoshes is forced to pay the ultimate price for his part in that with the life of his friend and soul mate. Galoshes refuses to let go of his friend and the love the shared by bringing him back and puts himself through untold pain and toil to try to find a way to do so. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"l have been through grief! Ã¢â¬Å", Ã¢â¬Å"Even if there will be more of pain, and heat and cold, I will go on! Ã¢â¬ (Mason 57, 58). It is only when the serpent steals the plant and slithers away that he realizes he too must go back to whence he came.His search for immortality is lost. But is it? Is immortality everlasting life? Is it being known by name and story and being told over and over? Was his immortality the city that he had built and left behind as a legacy as we see him looking over in the beginning and the ending of his tale? I think that is up to our interpretation. If we take the same look at the Tempest as we did with the story of Galoshes, what would we see? We would see the love that Prospers had for his daughter Miranda and his desire to protect her from harm as he did on the island every day in is teaching and daily lessons.We see the love that he shows to Ariel although he is under his power he is gentle toward him, where with Clinical, he is rough and hateful. Prospers is very smart and calculated about how he gets his revenge. He does well not to kill or harm anyone to achieve it and wants to have those who have wronged him apologize. He even ensures the plan by involving his naive daughter and the love that she bears or will bear for Prince Ferdinand by having them married by the sacred beings. Once Prospers proved the treachery of Alonso, Antonio andSebastian that had been done to him those 12 years ago and the revenge had been played out, love won over. All he wanted was to have them to hear them apologize and to be restored. This was not a tale of immortality, but again, not of one singular theme either. I suppose the argument that I could make here is that no matter how you look at these two amazing pieces of literature, there are so many different stories all wrapped up into one. It is much like our history, not matter what angle you are looking at it from, there is always someone that has another view on it or how it really appended, or something missed.I think, like postcolonial literature, there is much to be left to the imagination in how we interpret it. I believe that what the authors had in mind when they wrote these stories was to let the stories wander and to evolve to fit what would speak to the reader and not to be one track minded. The point of having an imagination is to use it and set it free, to be able to read these stories and to re-read them and find a different angle every time is the best part about it. I don't believe that we were meant to stick to one specific theme, but to explore them all.Maybe you are not the type to explore them all at once, but next time you are thumbing through the pages, try looking at these stories from the prospective of more than one. It broadens the story and opens the plot to even more beauty and wonder of possibilities.